CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION TESTS
Doc Brown's Chemistry Qualitative Methods of Analysis Revision Notes
PART 1 INTRODUCTION and chemical identification test index (repeated on each page)
Introduction to qualitative analysis tests to identify inorganic gases & ions (cations/anions) and organic molecule functional groups
Part 1 Introduction to chemical testing – alphabetical list (this page)
some associated revising links
Part 1 Test Index and Introduction
Full list of KEYWORDS for inorganic/organic identification methods in alphabetical order e.g. test/reagent for: * acid ==> H+ * acid/acyl chloride RCOCl * alcohols – general ROH/prim RCH2OH/sec R2CHOH/tert R3COH) * aldehyde RCHO * prim aliphatic amine R–NH2 * aliphatic/aromatic carboxylic acids * alkali ==> OH– * alkane/alkene >C=C</alkyne –CC– (saturated versus unsaturated) * aluminium/aluminum ion Al3+ * amide RCONH2 * prim aliphatic amines R–NH2 * ammonia gas NH3 * ammonium ion NH4+ * prim aromatic amine C6H5–NH2 etc. * barium ion Ba2+ * Benedict's solution * Brady's reagent * bromide ion Br– * bromine Br2 * caesium ion Cs+ * calcium ion Ca2+ by flame or hydroxide ppt. * carbonate CO32–/hydrogencarbonate HCO3– with acid or effect of heating metal carbonate e.g. MCO3 * carbon dioxide gas CO2 * carboxylic acid RCOOH * carboxylic acid (aliphatic) salts e.g. RCOO–Na+ * chloride ion Cl– * chlorine gas Cl2 * Chomate(VI) ion CrO42– * copper(II) ion Cu2+ by flame or hydroxide ppt. * 24DNPH (for aldehydes/ketones test) * esters RCOOR * Fehlings test/solution * flame test for metal ions * fluoride ion F– * haloalkanes/halogenoalkanes R–X * hydrogen gas H2 * hydrogen sulphide H2S * hydrogen ion, acids H+ * hydrogen bromide gas/hydrobromic acid HBr * hydrogen chloride gas/hydrochloric acid HCl * hydrogen iodide gas/hydriodic acid HI * hydroxide ion, alkali OH– * hydroxy/alcohol/phenol (organic) * iodide ion I– * iodine I2 * iodoform test – formation of CHI3 * iron(II) ion Fe2+ * iron(III) ion Fe3+ * ketone R2C=O * lead(II) ion Pb2+ * lithium ion Li+ * lime water Ca(OH)2(aq) * magnesium ion Mg2+ * metal carbonates–heating e.g. MCO3 * metal ions via hydroxide precipitate * nitrate or nitrate(V) NO3– * nitrite or nitrate(III) NO2– * nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen(IV) oxide NO2 * oxygen gas O2 * phenols C6H5OH etc. * potassium ion K+ * rubidium ion Rb+ * reducing sugars * saturated/unsaturated * silver nitrate AgNO3 (see chloride, bromide, iodide tests) * sugars (reducing) * sodium ion Na+ * strontium Sr+ * 'sulphate/sulfate' or sulphate(VI) SO42– * sulphide S2– * 'sulphite/sulfite' or sulphate(IV) SO32– * sulphur dioxide gas SO2 * Tollen's Reagent * unsaturated/saturated * water H2O * zinc ion Zn2+ *
Use the alphabetical test list above for identifying anions, cations, gases, molecules etc. to find what you require! for your KS3–KS4 Science–GCSE–IGCSE– Chemistry and GCE–AS–A2–IB–US grades 9–12 K12 advanced subsidiary chemistry course etc. and help you to identify unknown inorganic and organic compounds–molecules for qualitative analysis. Its also a good idea to read the brief notes after the alphabetical list.
WARNING SYMBOLS (signs or labels)
A brief description of what the hazard might be.
Biohazard: Biohazardous materials include anything that may cause disease in living organisms or cause significant impact to the environment or community.
NEW SECTION currently working on the table of examples below.
|WARNING||For all experiments, appropriate risk assessments should be done and hazcards studied etc. This section just illustrates the use of hazard warning signs with common examples, and may NOT provide sufficient detail for specific experiments, concentrations, coursework write up etc., but Google can!|
|Symbol||Examples of what might be labelled/classified with this hazard warning sign (definitions above)|
|Irritant: Most acidic and alkaline solutions unless very dilute; acidic gases like chlorine, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide; bleaches|
|Harmful: Some acids e.g. nitric acid; acidic gases like chlorine, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide; bleaches; heavy metal ions e.g. of lead, barium; some salts e.g. silver nitrate,|
|Corrosive: All concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions;|
||Highly flammable: Most organic solvents, petrol and other hydrocarbon fuels,|
|Toxic: Chlorine, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide,|
|Oxidising: Chlorine and oxygen gases, potassium manganate(VII), potassium chlorate (in some weed killers),|
|Explosive: TNT, hydrogen, fireworks,|
|Biohazard: organisms and viruses infectious to humans, animals or plants (e.g. parasites, viruses, bacteria, fungi); and biologically active agents (i.e. toxins, allergens, venoms)|
|Carcinogenic: nitrates, organic aromatic compounds like phenols,|
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