GCSE level School biology: Osmoregulation - water control - how the kidney works - dialysis

Use the page sub-index, take time to study the content or [Use the website search box] re-edit 19/05/2023

INDEX of notes on homeostasis - kidneys and osmoregulation

water content control - ion and glucose concentrations - kidney function - associated liver function - kidney failure - dialysis

Doc Brown's biology exam revision study notes

See also homeostasis - blood sugar control - diabetes

and homeostasis - thermoregulation and temperature control

 This page will help you answer questions such as ... How does the body control its water content?  Why is it important for the body to control its water content? How do the kidneys work? Why are the kidneys important? What can you do about kidney failure?


Sub-index for this section on kidney function and osmoregulation

(1) What is osmoregulation and why is it needed?

(2) The functions of the kidneys (plus mention of associated liver function)

(3) Some details on how the kidney works in conjunction with the urinary and blood systems

(4) More on controlling water content - water input and output - water balance

(5) Hormone controlled water concentration of the blood and urine - ADH negative feedback mechanism for water balance

(6) More on controlling ion concentrations and removing waste products and problems resulting from malfunctioning kidneys and kidney failure (plus mention of associated liver function)

(7) Dialysis - an artificial means of purifying the blood

(8) Kidney transplants and problems - transplant or dialysis? 'Pros and Cons'


Practical work to help develop your skills and understanding may have included the following:

dissecting and making observations of a kidney

designing a model kidney dialysis machine using Visking tubing as the filter

testing urine from diabetic and non-diabetic people using Clinistix.

Be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of treating kidney failure by dialysis or kidney transplant,


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Homeostasis notes index:

Homeostasis - introduction to how it functions (negative feedback systems explained)

Homeostasis - control of blood sugar level - insulin and diabetes

Homeostasis - osmoregulation, ADH, water control, urea and ion concentrations and kidney function, dialysis

Homeostasis - thermoregulation, control of temperature

Other general HUMAN BIOLOGY revision notes

Introduction to the organisation of cells => tissues => organs => organ systems (e.g. in humans)

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organisms  

See also Enzymes - section on digestion and synthesis 

The human circulatory system - heart, lungs, blood, blood vessels, causes/treatment of cardiovascular disease

The brain - what the different parts do and the dangers if damaged

An introduction to the nervous system including the reflex arc 

Hormone systems - Introduction to the endocrine system - adrenaline & thyroxine hormones

Hormone systems - menstrual cycle, contraception, fertility treatments 

Respiration - aerobic and anaerobic in plants and animals. 

Keeping healthy - communicable diseases - pathogen infections  

Keeping healthy - non-communicable diseases - risk factors for e.g. cancers  

Keeping healthy - diet and exercise 

Keeping healthy - defence against pathogens, infectious diseases, vaccination, drugs, monoclonal antibodies

See also Culturing microorganisms like bacteria - testing antibiotics/antiseptics 

Food tests for reducing sugars, starch, proteins and lipids 

The eye - structure and function - correction of vision defects 

Optics - lens types (convex, concave, uses), experiments, ray diagrams, correction of eye defects (gcse physics)


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