School biology revision notes: Organs and their exchange surface structure and function

Use the page sub-index, take time to study the content or [Use the website search box] re-edit 11/05/2023

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organism transport systems

Doc Brown's biology exam revision study notes

For plants see Transport in plants notes,

BUT first read Diffusion, osmosis and active transport then this page

 This page will help you answer questions such as ...  

Why do exchanges surfaces need to be large?  In what way are organs designed to have large surface areas?

How does transportation of materials through membranes take place?


Sub-index for these pages on exchange surfaces in organisms

1. A mathematical 'extra' on surface area to volume ratio calculations and implications for exchange surfaces in living organisms

2. Introduction to exchange surfaces in cells and organs

3. Gas exchange in the human lungs by diffusion - extra comments on breathing, COPD and ventilators

4. Gas exchange and the structure of fish gills

5. The function of villi in the exchange surface of the small intestine

6. Exchanges surface structure adaptations in other animals

See also The human circulatory system - heart, lungs, blood, blood vessels

Enzymes and the human digestion system

Keeping healthy - diet and exercise

and for plants see Transport in plants - gas exchanges, root absorption etc.

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Gas exchange in plant leaves

For plants see Transport in plants notes


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