School chemistry revision 14-16 GCSE and A level chemistry notes:

Pollution from accidents in the oil and gas industry

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FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION, Air Pollution & Climate Change

4B Pollution, Accidents and Economic Aspects of the Petrochemical Industry - the result of extracting oil and natural gas fossil fuels

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Anthropogenic means any environmental change or pollution due to human activity.

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See also

4A Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

4C Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

4D Fossil fuel air pollution - effects of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides

A local acid rain project!!!

oil spillage from a broken oil pipeline doc b oil notesdoc b oil notes4B Pollution, Accidents and Economic Aspects of the Petrochemical Industry - there are consequences of using fossil fuels!

  • 'COSTS'?: Our economy, like many other countries has become very dependent on the extraction, sale and use of oil based products. BUT, there is high price to be paid at times whether it be pollution effects or warring countries with oil economics factors.

    • The price of oil can vary with market forces determined by the World's economy AND political instability and wars, particularly in the major oil producing Middle-East Arab Gulf states affect the price too.

    • Therefore, without alternative energy resources, we are at the mercy of forces beyond our control.

    • If stocks or production rates fall, the price of crude oil rises.

    • Richer countries can afford more costly oil and can stockpile it, developing countries will struggle to compete.

    • In order to preserve our crude oil and gas supplies we sometimes compromise our ideals when dealing with the politics of countries we may think unsuitable.

    • So many jobs and national economic factors depend on oil that progressive change on how the oil industry is run and to tackle climate change is NOT EASY !!!

  • Oil extraction and ACCIDENTS:

    • Oil rig accidents, broken pipelines, oil tanker wrecks etc. all have terrible effects on the plant and animal life of the locality as we see from the horrible TV pictures of seabirds coated in oil, and toxic oil slicks covering the beaches and sands.

    • Birds get poisoned when trying to clean themselves as crude oil sticks to feathers, and other animals like sea otters, whales can be poisoned too.

    • In fact the whole marine ecosystem of an area can be devastated so that even creatures not directly poisoned can be affected if their food chain is disrupted.

      • Look up on the internet the effects of the disastrous 2010 explosion on the oil drilling station called 'Deepwater Horizon' in the Gulf of Mexico - the largest accidental spillage of crude oil in history.

      • Thousands of miles of coastline were contaminated making large areas uninhabitable for most local marine species of plants and animals.

    • Even the use of huge amounts of detergents to break up oil slicks and disperse the pollution may damage aquatic ecosystems too.

    • Detergents can be toxic to some se creatures e.g. species of fish and molluscs like shellfish.

  • Fire hazard and war one damage:

    • There is also the risk to humans from fires and explosions on rigs or at oil refinery installations and fuel storage depots etc.

    • There have been several tragic accidents in extracting oil from the North Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico.

    • Apart from industrial accidents wars have been fought over, and in, oil producing lands in the Middle East e.g. the Iraq war. Oil production sites have been targeted or deliberately sabotaged to prevent their use to the 'enemy', the result is often huge oil fires of intense heat and black smoke!

  • Fracking:

    • Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside.

    • Fracking involves the process of drilling down into the earth to layers of rock e.g. shale containing absorbed hydrocarbon gases.

    • Then a high-pressure water mixture containing various chemicals is directed at the rock to fracture the rock and release the hydrocarbon gas.

    • This injection of water, sand and chemicals at high pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well to complete the extraction process.

    • Extracting oil and gas from e.g. shale deposits is proving controversial in the US and UK.

    • Ground pollution has been reported and the process does use lots of harmful chemicals in the fluid that is pumped down into the fractures in the ground.

  • Plastic pollution

Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (easier-foundation-level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (harder-higher-level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry

and (c) doc b 3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

ALSO gap-fill ('word-fill') exercises originally written for ...

... AQA GCSE Science (c) doc b Useful products from crude oil AND (c) doc b Oil, Hydrocarbons & Cracking etc.

... OCR 21st C GCSE Science (c) doc b Worksheet gap-fill C1.1c Air pollutants etc ...

... Edexcel 360 GCSE Science Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation etc ...

... each set are interlinked, so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes

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 products causing oil pollution, keywords and phrases: revision study notes for 14-16 school chemistry AQA Edexcel OCR IGCSE/GCSE 9-1 chemistry science topics modules for studying pollution from oil extraction, accidents producing oil spillages, polluted beaches, dead seabirds and fish from pollution, fire hazard from broken oil and gas pipes, damage in war zones, pressure on the economics of petrochemical industry, the pollution from controversial fracking gcse chemistry revision notes igcse revising KS4 science

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