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Doc Brown's Chemistry - Alphabetical Index  A   

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    • KS3 = UK Y7-9 ~USA grades 6-8 SCIENCE

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A alphabetical index page

A...

'abbreviated' structural formula : ADVANCED explained using alkane examples : ADVANCED explained-examples-links homologous series

absorbed/absorption/desorption :  : ADVANCED heterogeneous catalyst

absorption of alpha/beta/gamma radiation : GCSE-AS detailed Radioactivity notes

abstraction : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistry

abundance of ... : ADVANCED isotopes by mass spectroscopy

acetate rayon

acetic acid (ethanoic acid, vinegar) : GCSE extra organic chemistryADVANCED structure-names of carboxylic acids

adhesives : Formulation chemistry -adhesives :

acid/acyl amides see amides

acid/acyl anhydrides (organic molecules) : ADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz

acid/acyl chlorides (organic molecules) : ADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED nucleophilic addition-elimination mechanism with water/alcohols/ammonia/amines : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz

acid-base-alkali ionization theory : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic)ADVANCED detailed advanced notes on Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry theories of acids-bases, strong/weak acids/bases pH scale calculations :

acid-base-alkali titration calculations : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) molarity examples-Quiz : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) volumetric/titration calculationsADVANCED acid-base titration Q's

acid-base indicators : ADVANCED theory, pKind and examples explained (also use top sub-index) :

acidity of... : KS3-GCSE soil/atmosphere effects/treatment : KS3-GCSE formation of acid rainADVANCED  acidity of hexa-aqua ions :

acids-bases-alkalis-salts-pH-neutralisation : KS3 word-fill worksheets 7Ewf and 7Fwf : KS3 easy quiz : KS3-CGSE examples-general chemistry :  GCSE reactions with metals-reactivity seriesGCSE foundation m/c Quiz : GCSE higher m/c Quiz : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) acid-base theoryGCSE word-fill worksheet :ADVANCED theory of acids and bases, examples and pH/Ka calculations (use 5. sub-index  near top of page :

activated complex, 'transition state' : ADVANCED explained in organic reaction mechanismsADVANCED reaction profiles-kinetics

activation energy : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) rates of reaction notes : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) energy changes notesADVANCED theory : ADVANCED calculation from data/Arrhenius equation

active sites : ADVANCED heterogeneous catalyst : ADVANCED enzyme structure-function

activity series of metals : KS3-GCSE detailed notes : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) metal extraction methods

acyl/acid anhydride see acid anhydrides above

acyl/acid chloride - see acid chlorides above

acylation : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistryADVANCED aromatic compound formation mechanisms

acylonium ion : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistry

addition polymerisation : GCSE-AS as type of reaction : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) Oil Products : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) bonding noteADVANCED (basic) note on the reaction

addition reaction : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) simple example explained : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistry

adhesives : adhesives as an example of the science of formulation chemistry :

adsorption/adsorbed/adsorbing : ADVANCED heterogeneous catalyst theory-uses

advantages of .. :

air : KS3-GCSE atmosphere composition : GCSE raw material for blast furnace : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) raw material for ammonia and nitric acid productionGCSE-AS liquefaction-fractional distillation, separation of useful products

alanine-amino acid : ADVANCED laboratory synthesis

'alcohol' see ethanol and below 

alcohols (alkanols) : GCSE extra organic chemistryADVANCED classification/structure/naming/including diols/triols/cyclo-/chloro- : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED conversion to halogenoalkane/water-elimination mechanisms : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling points of primary alcohols compared to other organic molecules : ADVANCED thermodynamics Part 1 thermochemistry - enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion : ADVANCED test for alcohols : ADVANCED solubility of alcohols (Equilibria section 8.7) :

aldehydes/ketones : ADVANCED structure & naming/ROH==>RC=O==>RCOOH ox. sequence : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED nucleophilic addition of CN and H mechanism : ADVANCED aromatic-structure-naming : ADVANCED m/c Quiz on naming : ADVANCED type in name QuizADVANCED redox theory of tests for aldehydes : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling points of aldehydes compared to other organic molecules :

alicyclic organic compounds : ADVANCED definition - examples (comparison with aliphatic/aromatic compounds) :

aliphatic organic compounds : ADVANCED definition and examples (comparison with alicyclic/aromatic compounds) :

Alkali Metals, of Group 1 Li Na K etc.: GCSE-data-properties-trends-chemical reactions-uses : GCSE position in Periodic Table : GCSE-as members of the reactivity series of metals : GCSE foundation Alkali Metals m/c Quiz : GCSE higher Alkali Metals m/c Quiz : GCSE word-fill worksheetADVAN-Alkali Metals data : ADVANCED s-block detailed notes : AS basic m/c Group 1-2 Quiz  : Flame Test for alkali metals

Alkaline Earth Metals, of Group 2 (Be) Mg to Ra etc. : GCSE Mg/Ca position in metal reactivity series : GCSE-position in the Periodic Table : ADVAN-Alkaline Earth Metals data : ADVANCED s-block detailed notes :AS basic m/c Group 1-2 Quiz : Flame Test for alkaline earth metals :

alkalis-acids-bases-salts-pH : KS3 easy quiz : KS3 word-fill worksheets 7Ewf and 7Fwf : KS3-GCSE examples-general chemistry : GCSE foundation m/c Quiz : GCSE higher m/c Quiz : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) acid-base theory

alkanes (organic hydrocarbon molecules) : GCSE Oil ProductsGCSE extra organic chemistry  : ADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED free radical chlorination/cracking reaction mechanisms : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling points of alkanes compared to other organic molecules : ADVANCED thermodynamics Part 1 thermochemistry - enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion :

alkanoic acids: See carboxylic acids

alkenes (organic hydrocarbon molecules) : GCSE Oil ProductsGCSE extra organic chemistry : test forADVANCED structure and naming (including cyclo- and chloro-) : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED electrophilic addition of HBr/Br2/H2SO4/H2O and free radical polymerisation reaction mechanisms : ADVANCED Geometrical isomerism : ADVANCED m/c Quiz on naming : ADVANCED type in name QuizTest for alkenes :

alkoxy group : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistryADVANCED structure/naming ethers

alkyl group : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistryADVANCED structure/naming alkanes

alkyl halides: See Halogenoalkanes

alkylation : ADVANCED aromatic compound formation mechanisms

alkynesADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure

allotropes : GCSE-AS definition-examples carbon, oxygen, sulphur : GCSE-AS allotropes of carbon

alloys : GCSE alloys-uses of metals Fe/Ti/Al etc. : GCSE uses of Transition Metal (and Al note) : GCSE steel making : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) metal structure, bonding and propertiesSmart materials - SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS :

alpha-helix : ADVANCED in protein structure :

alpha particle radiation : GCSE-AS mass/charge/properties/uses/dangers etc. in detailed Radioactivity notes : GCSE-AS historic alpha particle scattering by nucleus experiment

alternative energy resources: GCSE/AS basic - renewable energy sources :

aluminium/aluminum, Al : GCSE metal reactivity series-reactions- oxygen/water/acids/displacement : GCSE-electrolysis extraction and recycling aluminium  : GCSE uses-anodising : GCSE more on uses/comparison with Transition MetalsKS3-GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) Thermit reaction : : 

aluminium fluoride AlF3(s) : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) bonding-structure-properties

aluminium oxide Al2O3(s) : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) bonding-structure-properties : GCSE-AS Bauxite ore for Al extraction

americium, Am :

amides (organic nitrogen compounds) : ADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED formation from acid chloride-mechanism : ADVANCED aromatic-structure-naming : ADVANCED organic-nitrogen-compounds-naming-structure : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling points of amides compared to other organic molecules :

amino acids : GCSE extra organic chemistryADVANCED R/S optical isomerism in amino acids : ADVANCED aliphatic naming and structureADVANCED organic-nitrogen-compounds-naming-structure : ADVANCED residues in protein structure

amines : ADVANCED organic nitrogen compounds structure-naming : ADVANCED aromatic-structure-namingADVANCED aliphatic - formation from halogenoalkanes-mechanism : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling points of primary aliphatic amines compared to other organic molecules :

ammonia, NH3 : GCSE reaction with acids : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) Haber Process manufacture, physical/chemical properties, uses, oxidation in making nitric acid : GCSE in Earth's early atmosphere : GCSE in nitrogen cycleGCSE-AS covalent molecule-bonding : : ADVANCED molecule shape, bond angle, dot & cross electronic diagramADVANCED reaction with halogenoalkanes - amine formation mechanism : ADVANCED reaction with acid chlorides - amide formation mechanism : ADVANCED oxidation to NO-redox theoryADVANCED Haber Synthesis - equilibrium-Le Chatelier-calculations-manufacture : ADVANCED mathematical modelling of Haber Synthesis :

ammonium, NH4, salts : test for the NH4+ ion : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) fertiliser salts

ammonium chloride, NH4Cl(s) : GCSE reversible reaction - thermal decomposition : GCSE salt preparations : GCSE ammonia-ammonium salts

ampere : GCSE-AS unit of electric current - electrolysis calculations

analgesics : GCSE extra organic chemistry

analysis - quantitative : Quantitative analysis: acid-base, silver nitrate-chloride and EDTA titrations : Quantitative analysis: Redox volumetric titrations : NMR/IR/% composition problems :

analysis - qualitative : Qualitative Analysis for: * acid ==> H+ * acid/acyl chloride RCOCl * alcohols - general ROH/prim RCH2OH/sec R2CHOH/tert R3COH) * aldehyde RCHO * prim aliphatic amine R-NH2 * aliphatic/aromatic carboxylic acids * alkali ==> OH- * alkane/alkene >C=C</alkyne -CC- (saturated versus unsaturated) * aluminium/aluminum ion Al3+ * amide RCONH2 * prim aliphatic amines R-NH2 * ammonia gas NH3 * ammonium ion NH4+ * prim aromatic amine C6H5-NH2 etc. * barium ion Ba2+ * Benedict's solution * Brady's reagent * bromide ion Br- * bromine Br2 * caesium ion Cs+ * calcium ion Ca2+ by flame or hydroxide ppt. * carbonate CO32-/hydrogencarbonate HCO3- with acid or effect of heating metal carbonate e.g. MCO3 * carbon dioxide gas CO2 * carboxylic acid RCOOH * carboxylic acid (aliphatic) salts e.g. RCOO-Na+ * chloride ion Cl- * chlorine gas Cl2 * Chomate(VI) ion CrO42- * copper(II) ion Cu2+ by flame or hydroxide ppt. * 24DNPH (for aldehydes/ketones test) * esters RCOOR * Fehlings test/solution * flame test for metal ions * fluoride ion F- * haloalkanes/halogenoalkanes R-X * hydrogen gas H2 * hydrogen sulphide H2S * hydrogen ion, acids H+ * hydrogen bromide gas/hydrobromic acid HBr * hydrogen chloride gas/hydrochloric acid HCl * hydrogen iodide gas/hydriodic acid HI * hydroxide ion, alkali OH- * hydroxy/alcohol/phenol (organic) * iodide ion I- * iodine I2 * iodoform test - formation of CHI3 * iron(II) ion Fe2+ * iron(III) ion Fe3+ * ketone R2C=O * lead(II) ion Pb2+ * lithium ion Li+ * lime water Ca(OH)2(aq) * magnesium ion Mg2+ * metal carbonates-heating e.g. MCO3 * metal ions via hydroxide precipitate * nitrate or nitrate(V) NO3- * nitrite or nitrate(III) NO2- * nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen(IV) oxide NO2 * oxygen gas O2 * phenols C6H5OH etc. * potassium ion K+ * rubidium ion Rb+ * reducing sugars * saturated/unsaturated * silver nitrate AgNO3 (see chloride, bromide, iodide tests) * sugars (reducing) * sodium ion Na+ * strontium Sr+ * 'sulphate/sulfate' or sulphate(VI) SO42- * sulphide S2- * 'sulphite/sulfite' or sulphate(IV) SO32- * sulphur dioxide gas SO2 * Tollen's Reagent * unsaturated/saturated * water H2O * zinc ion Zn2+ *

angular (bent) shaped molecules/ions : ADVANCED molecule shape, pictures, bond angles, ox diagrams

anhydrous ... ('without water') : GCSE copper sulphate formation : GCSE copper sulphate test for waterADVAN anhydrous-hydrated-water of crystallisation explained :

anions : Ionic Bonding : Qualitative tests for anions : in electrolysis :

anode - positive electrode : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) introduction to electrolysis and links to uses

anodising : GCSE of aluminium-usesGCSE as type of reaction

antacid : KS3-GCSE explained-examples

antimony, Sb : GCSE-AS metalloid/semi-metal note :

antiperspirants products : antiperspirant products as an example of the science of formulation chemistry :

apatite (calcium hydroxy phosphate mineral) : ADVANCED calcium in teeth by volumetric titration :

applications of ... : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) electrolysis

AQA exam board : GCSE Science-Chemistry support-help links

aquatic ...

archaeological dating : GCSE-AS using carbon-14 - radioactivity notes

argon, Ar, in Group 0/8 The Noble Gases : GCSE-properties-uses : GCSE-AS dating rocks K-40/Ar ratio : ADVANCED data :

aromatic - organic compounds : ADVANCED comparison with aliphatic/alicyclic compounds - examples ADVANCED examples of structure and naming : ADVANCED electrophilic substitution mechanisms-orientation of products for nitration/chlorination/alkylation/acylation/sulphonation : ADVANCED type in name quiz

Arrhenius : GCSE-AS Ionic theoryADVANCED Arrhenius equation to calculate activation energy

arrows - electron shifts : ADVANCED explained in organic reaction mechanisms

arsenic, As : GCSE-AS metalloid/semi-metal use note :

artificial ... : GCSE fertilisers

aryl group : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistryADVANCED aromatic compounds

ascorbic acid, vitamin C : GCSE extra organic chemistry

aspirin, 2-ethanoylhydroxybenzoic acid : GCSE extra organic chemistryADVANCED volumetric titration with NaOH :

astatine, At, At2(s) in Group 7 The Halogens : GCSE data-properties-dangers : ADVANCED data :

atactic poly(propene) : ADVANCED stereoregular-atactic/isotactic/syndiotactic

attacking reagent/molecule/ion : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistry

atom : KS3-GCSE introduction-definition-examples : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) detailed atomic structure - history of atom concept - alpha-particle scattering experiment

'atomic economy' : GCSE(AS basic) calculations for a chemical process and further GCSE example :

atomic emission spectroscopy - instrumental method of analysis : GCSE a few comments and examples

atomic mass, relative Ar, based on 12C scale : GCSE-AS definition-examples-calculations

atomic/proton number : GCSE-AS definition, atomic structure : GCSE-AS structure of elements in Periodic Table

atomic radius : ADVANCED explained : GCSE Group 1 Alkali Metal data : ADVANCED Groups1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metal data : GCSE Group 0 Noble Gas data : ADVANCED Group 0 Noble Gas data : GCSE Group 7 Halogen data : ADVANCED Group 7 Halogen data : GCSE-ADVANCED transition Metal data (Sc-Zn, 3d block)Periodicity plots of atomic radius Z = 1 to 20 plots * Z = 1 to 38 plots * Z = 1 to 96 plots * DATA

atomic structure : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) detailed notesGCSE m/c QuizGCSE word-fill worksheet : GCSE crossword

'atomic volume' : Atomic Volume periodicity plot Z = 1 to 96

atmosphere of Earth : GCSE development and current composition

Aufbau Principle : ADVANCED electron configurations :

autocatalysis : ADVANCED manganate(VII)-ethanedioate reaction/titration

autosynthesis-combinational chemistry : ADVANCED organic synthesis

Avogadro constant/number & calculations : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) value-mole calculations with answers

Avogadro's Law on gas volumes & calculations : GCSE-AS reacting volume ratio examples-Quiz

azo dyes/diazonium salts : ADVANCED examples of aromatic-structure-naming : ADVANCED more examples of organic-nitrogen-compounds-naming-structure

 


A alphabetical index page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z * 1st time user notes


This page is My section to unofficially support the Chemistry, Radioactivity and Earth Science in ANY AQA, Edexcel & OCR GCSE-IGCSE Chemistry, KS4 science or IGCSE syllabus from the following examination board syllabuses-specifications gcse private tuition residential student tuition courses pupil resources teacher resources publishing company revision guides published by Amazon Harper Collins Education Letts Lonsdale Revision Guides Heinemann Educational Books publishers catalogue CGP Books Educational Hodder Education Philip Adam publications Nelson Thornes Philip Allan Textbooks examination boards AQA Edexcel OCR sciences higher education secondary school education college science education institutions KS3 Science KS4 Science GCSE IGCSE courses tuition help tutors colleges semesters books revision guides college textbooks university education courses GCSE science biology GCSE chemistry courses physics university undergraduate medicine biochemistry university medical sciences courses revision books GCSE KS4 Science worksheets workbooks GCSE practice examination paper questions science seminars university entrance examinations exam tuition science teacher training Revision KS4 Science Additional Science Triple Award Science Separate Sciences Courses aid to textbook revision GCSE/IGCSE/O level Chemistry Information Study Notes for revising for AQA GCSE Science, Edexcel GCSE Science/IGCSE Chemistry & OCR 21st Century Science, OCR Gateway Science  WJEC gcse science chemistry CCEA/CEA gcse science chemistry O Level Chemistry (revise courses equal to US grade 8, grade 9 grade 10) A level Revision notes for GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level AS Advanced Level A2 IB Revise AQA GCE Chemistry OCR GCE Chemistry Edexcel GCE Chemistry Salters Chemistry CIE Chemistry, WJEC GCE AS A2 Chemistry, CCEA/CEA GCE AS A2 Chemistry revising courses for pre-university students (equal to US grade 11 and grade 12 and AP Honours/honors level for revising science chemistry courses revision guides

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