Advanced Organic Chemistry: H-1 hydrogen-1 (proton) NMR spectrum of benzene

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Interpreting the H-1 hydrogen-1 (proton) NMR spectrum of benzene C6H6  (re-edit)

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing H-1 NMR spectra

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H-1 proton NMR spectroscopy - spectra index

low and high resolution H-1 proton nmr spectrum of benzene analysis interpretation of chemical shifts ppm spin spin line splitting diagram doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes

TMS is the acronym for tetramethylsilane, formula Si(CH3)4, whose protons are arbitrarily given a chemical shift of 0.0 ppm. This is the 'standard' in 1H NMR spectroscopy and all other proton shifts, called chemical shifts, depend on the individual (electronic) chemical environment of the hydrogen atoms in an organic molecule - benzene here.

The chemical shifts quoted in ppm on the diagram of the H-1 NMR spectrum of benzene represent the peaks of the intensity of the chemical shifts of benzene (which are often groups of split lines at high resolution) AND the relative integrated areas under the peaks gives you the ratio of protons in the different chemical environments of the benzene molecule.

aromatic benzene C6H6, skeletal formula (c) doc b , structural/displayed formula

Interpreting the H-1 NMR spectrum of benzene C6H6

As you can see from the diagram above there is only one chemical shift line in the H-1 NMR spectrum of benzene (at 7.3 ppm) indicating only one chemical environment of all six carbon atoms.

So, all six ring protons are equivalent to each other and no splitting of the proton resonance is observed.

This 1H NMR spectrum of benzene fits in with the modern view of it being a completely symmetrical planar hexagonal molecule with all the hydrogen atoms in the same chemical environment (diagram below)

explaining the 1H proton NMR spectrum of benzene diagram of the rings of pi orbitals of benzene aromatic compounds aromaticity above and below a hexagonal ring of carbon atoms

Number of protons 1H causing splitting Splitting pattern produced from the n+1 rule and the theoretical ratio of line intensities
0 means no splitting             1            
1 creates a doublet           1   1          
2 creates a triplet         1   2   1        
3 creates a quartet       1   3   3   1      
4 creates a quintet     1   4   6   4   1    
5 creates a sextet   1   5   10   10   5   1  
6 creates a septet 1   6   15   20   15   6   1

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Links associated with benzene

The infrared spectrum of Benzene

The mass spectrum of Benzene

The C-13 NMR spectrum of Benzene

The chemistry of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS revision notes INDEX

H-1 proton NMR spectroscopy index

(Please read 8 points at the top of the 1H NMR index page)


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