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Chemistry Notes: The use of piezoelectric materials

Part 7 PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT (PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS) & PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS

Doc Brown's Chemistry Revision Notes - Smart Materials and Materials Science

Index of smart materials revision notes

Index of nanochemistry revision notes

A general survey of materials - natural & synthetic, properties & uses

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Alphabetical list of keywords mentioned on these 'smart materials' pages: Carbon fibres * Chromogenic materials * Electrochromic materials * Gore-Tex * Halochromic materials  * High performance polymers * Kevlar * Lycra * Magnetic shape memory alloys * Magnetostrictive materials * Nitinol * pH sensitive polymers * Photochromic materials * Photomechancal materials * Piezoelectric effect materials * PTFE * Self-healing materials * Shape memory alloys * Shape memory polymers * Spandex * Teflon * Temperature responsive polymers * Thermochromic materials * Thinsulate


Part 7a. PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT and PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS

  • Piezoelectric materials are materials that produce a tiny voltage when stress is applied e.g. pressure by compressing a material i.e. 'squeezing' it.

    • The electric polarising effect is a direct result of mechanical stress on the crystal structure of the material.

      • Piezoelectricity is observed in some anisotropic (no centre of symmetry) crystals when subjected to mechanical strain.

    • Piezoelectric materials are most widely used as sensors in different environments.

    • This piezo-electric effect can be used to detect stress and deformation in solid materials.

    • The effect can used in general to detect pressure changes in gases or liquids i.e. pressure transducers and other electrical instrumentation components.

    • The piezoelectric effect is used in lighters.

  • The effect can work in the opposite way and an applied electric field (p.d. voltage) across the material will produce stress within the sample and cause it to change shape.

    • This reverse phenomenon is known as the electrostrictive or motor effect.

    • Therefore structures can be designed and made to bend, expand or contract when a voltage is applied for a particular use.


Part 7b. PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS

  • PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS are involved in any process by which a printing surface is prepared mechanically with the aid of photography.

  • Photomechanical materials can change shape under exposure to light.


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INDEX of SMART MATERIALS PAGES

PART 1 CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS - Thermochromic, Photochromic & Electrochromic Materials

PART 2 SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS e.g. Nitinol & Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

PART 3 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS, pH and temperature sensitive-responsive polymers, self-healing materials

Part 4 LYCRA-SPANDEX

PART 5 High performance polymers like KEVLAR

PART 6 GORETEX, THINSULATE and TEFLON-PTFE

PART 7 PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT (PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS) and PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS

PART 8 CARBON FIBRES

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