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Revision help links for WJEC Advanced A Level Chemistry

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Doc Brown's Advanced Level Chemistry

WJEC Welsh Advanced Level GCE A A2 CHEMISTRY course

PLEASE REMEMBER THAT YOU NEED TO REVISE ALL of the two years work for the final A Level Examination

AS/A2 Chemistry Units 1-2 on AS page = 1st year of full A Level

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ALL my advanced A level chemistry revision study notes

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A2 Unit 3 Physical and inorganic chemistry (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

3.1 Redox and standard electrode potential

3.2 Redox reactions

3.3 Chemistry of the p-block

3.4 Chemistry of the d-block transition metals

3.5 Chemical kinetics

3.6 Enthalpy changes for solids and solutions

3.7 Entropy and feasibility of reactions

3.8 Equilibrium constants

3.9 Acid-base equilibria


A2 Unit 4 Organic chemistry and analysis (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

4.1 Stereoisomerism

4.2 Aromaticity

4.3 Alcohols and phenols

4.4 Aldehydes and ketones

4.5 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives

4.6 Amines

4.7 Amino acids, peptides and proteins

4.8 Organic synthesis and analysis


A2 Unit 5 Practical (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)


A2 Unit 3 Physical and inorganic chemistry (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

3.1 Redox and standard electrode potential (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 includes introduction to electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction (INDEX for several pages)


3.2 Redox reactions (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 includes introduction to electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

Redox titration calculation questions

FULL ANSWERS and WORKING for REDOX TITRATION QUESTIONS


3.3 Chemistry of the p-block (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

The p-block elements  : 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction : Boron : Aluminium * 8.2 Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge * 8.3 Group 5/15 Introduction : Nitrogen : Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction : Oxygen : Sulfur * 8.5 Group 0/18 The Noble Gases

Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry


3.4 Chemistry of the d-block transition metals (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INORGANIC Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS sub-index: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt * Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, E * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Extra Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potential chart * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations


3.5 Chemical kinetics (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] (introduction to, and example of, nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes)

 AND  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.


3.6 Enthalpy changes for solids and solutions (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

What happens when a salt dissolves in water and why?

ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

What happens when a salt dissolves in water and why?

Enthalpy cycles involving a salt dissolving

The Born-Haber Cycle


3.7 Entropy and feasibility of reactions (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Introduction to Entropy

Examples of entropy values and comments

ΔS, Entropy and change of state

ΔS, Entropy changes and the feasibility of a chemical change

More on ΔG, Free energy changes, feasibility and applications


3.8 Equilibrium constants (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes See also computer simulation of ammonia equilibrium composition

3.9 Acid-base equilibria (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Equilibria - pH, weak-strong acid-base theory (Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry) and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations index of level advanced notes

Equilibria - Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers index of advanced level notes


A2 Unit 4 Organic chemistry and analysis (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

4.1 Stereoisomerism (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

General introduction and definition of isomerism, structural isomerism - chain, positional, functional group and tautomerism examples explained

STEREOISOMERISM general definition, E/Z (geometric/geometrical cis/trans) isomerism

Stereoisomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism examples and chiral auxiliary synthesis

Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written!) (answers)


4.2 Aromaticity (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry (look for 'general formulae' and links to organic molecular structure and nomenclature/naming pages)

Notes on the Structure and Naming of Aromatic Compounds

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds

Ex. 1. Matching pair Quiz on hydrocarbon structure

 MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms links to various reactions including equation and reaction conditions

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given)

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br) (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given)

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction] (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given)

Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction]


4.3 Alcohols and phenols (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALCOHOLS

Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS Part 1 Classification into primary (prim), secondary (sec) and tertiary (tert) - notes include isomers and other related compounds which may not be needed

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

The physical and chemical properties of phenol and some of its derivatives and their uses

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes (section 9.)

Qualitative Analysis: Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.) (alphabetical keyword index at top of page)

Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - preparation of an ester (described in section 4a)

Ex. 2. Matching pair Quiz on alcohol, phenol & ether structure

Ex. 3. Matching pair Quiz on alcohols, phenols & ether reactions


4.4 Aldehydes and ketones (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALDEHYDES and KETONES

Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Carbonyl Compounds Aldehydes and Ketones

Ex. 4. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes (section 9.)

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of aldehydes/ketones/carboxylic acids to alcohols (section 8.)

Qualitative Analysis: Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.) (alphabetical keyword index at top of page)

 Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)


4.5 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES e.g.

AMIDES - molecular structure, preparations and reactions, brief mention of polyamides

The chemistry of NITRILES - molecular structure, preparations and reactions

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes to carboxylic acids (sections 9.1 to 9.3)

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alkyl-arenes/aromatic compounds to carboxylic acids (section 9.4)

Ex. 4. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure

Ex. 5 Matching pair quiz on organic molecular structure

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols (section 8.3)

Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - preparation of an ester

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

Reduction of nitriles to primary aliphatic amines in section 8.4

 Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines (general equations and reaction conditions quoted too)


4.6 Amines (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

AMIDES - molecular structure, preparations and reactions, brief mention of polyamides

The chemistry of NITRILES - molecular structure, preparations and reactions

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia or primary amine to make amines (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

Reduction of nitro-aromatic compounds to aromatic amines for dyestuffs industry

Physical & chemical properties of phenylamine, selected derivatives including diazonium ions and dyes


4.7 Amino acids, peptides and proteins (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

LINKS to all my notes on amino acids, peptides, polypeptides and types of proteins

Amino acids - molecular structure, preparation and reactions - two functional group

 Some notes on amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes


4.8 Organic synthesis and analysis (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Index of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 1H NMR spectra of organic compounds

SIMPLE introductory NMR problem solving with % composition and infra-red absorption data

chromatography (paper/thin layer)

Organic Chemistry Notes - An introduction to polymer structure addition and condensation polymers

The manufacture, molecular structure, properties and uses of polyesters

Amides - molecular structure, physical properties, preparations, reactions, brief mention of polyamides

The structure, properties and uses of polyesters and polyamides involving aromatic monomers

Industrial Chemistry Notes includes section on glc gas-liquid chromatography (section 6.)

(c) doc b Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule starting with reacting masses or % composition by mass

Structured Question worksheet on Acid-Base volumetric titration calculations - determining molecular mass of an acids (answers) Questions 15 and 16 relevant

Calculations section 6. Reacting masses of reactants and products and actual percent % yield, theoretical yield and atom economy

Calculations section 14. % actual and theoretical yield, how much of reactants are needed? (sub-index near top of page)


A2 Unit 5 Practical (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)


WJEC GCE CHEMISTRY PAST PAPERS

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