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Revision help links for Cambridge International Advanced A Level Chemistry

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 Doc Brown's Chemistry

Cambridge International Examinations GCE AS A2 Advanced Level CHEMISTRY

My unofficial support for this CIE 9701 chemistry syllabus-specifications

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ALL my advanced A level chemistry revision study notes

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Since first developing this page of help links for Cambridge International A level chemistry 9701 specification, the website has considerably expanded, so not all links are in place, BUT sub-index page links help you find all the new pages!

Each topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections e.g. revision notes and quizzes on this site

 READ CAREFULLY  PLEASE remember that despite the fact that my 'A level' chemistry notes are far from complete, and as yet, do not even cover all the basics, but I think there is enough to start an unofficial support page. By clicking on the text and [ORGANIC], [INORGANIC], [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL] and [useful GCSE notes] icon links you should find things to help on a particular topic.  The notes-quizzes are not just for your particular syllabus, but are designed to cover, eventually, any Chemistry in UK based advanced level pre-university chemistry specification so you need to pick out the bits which are useful for your syllabus. [Each link opens up in a new window] [ALL LINKS SHOULD WORK IF THIS PAGE IS SAVED]

NOTE: Where an aspect of the specification is only needed for A2, A2 will be indicated, otherwise the topic will be needed for both AS and A2 (AS content is needed for the synoptic aspect of A2)

INDEX of syllabus-specification section links for CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry


LINKS FOR THE LATEST COURSE CIE AS/A level chemistry course

(A2 links UNDER DEVELOPMENT June 2022)

The organisation of the latest specification of the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry CIE 9701 syllabus for 2022, 2023 and 2024. Syllabus overview and links to help links
AS and A Level subject content

Candidates for Cambridge International AS Level
Chemistry study the following topics:

A Level only subject content

Candidates for Cambridge International A Level
Chemistry study the AS topics
and
following topics

Physical chemistry (CIE 9701 AS/A level chemistry)

(1) Atomic structure

(2) Atoms, molecules and stoichiometry

(3) Chemical bonding

(4) States of matter

(5) Chemical energetics

(6) Electrochemistry

(7) Equilibria

(8) Reaction kinetics


Inorganic chemistry (CIE 9701 AS/A level chemistry)

(9) The Periodic Table: chemical periodicity

(10) Group 2

(11) Group 17

(12) Nitrogen and sulfur


Organic chemistry (CIE 9701 AS/A level chemistry)

(13) An introduction to AS Level organic chemistry

(14) Hydrocarbons

(15) Halogen compounds

(16) Hydroxy compounds

(17) Carbonyl compounds

(18) Carboxylic acids and derivatives

(19) Nitrogen compounds

(20) Polymerisation

(21) Organic synthesis


Analysis (CIE 9701 AS/A level chemistry)

22 Analytical techniques

Physical chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

(23) Chemical energetics

(24) Electrochemistry

(25) Equilibria

(26) Reaction kinetics

 

 

 

 


Inorganic chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

(27) Group 2

(28) Chemistry of transition elements

 

 


Organic chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

(29) An introduction to A Level organic chemistry

(30) Hydrocarbons

(31) Halogen compounds

(32) Hydroxy compounds

(33) Carboxylic acids and derivatives

(34) Nitrogen compounds

(35) Polymerisation

(36) Organic synthesis
 

 


Analysis (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

(37) Analytical techniques

Physical chemistry (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

(1) Atomic structure (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Revision notes on all you need to know on ATOMIC STRUCTURE for advanced level

Electronic Structure

Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56), ions and the Periodic Table

Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, evidence of quantum levels, ionisation energy patterns


(2) Atoms, molecules and stoichiometry (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

AS/A chemical calculations sections 1 to 18 indexed examples, notes and short tests


(3) Chemical bonding (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Chemical bonding

Why is knowledge of chemical bonding & structure so important?

Introduction to chemical bonding - why? how? and patterns

Ionic Bonding: compounds and properties

Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties

Giant covalent structures and other big molecules

Metallic Bonding – structure and properties of metals

Electronegativity, bond polarity, type of chemical bonding

More on ionic structures and ionic bonding

(Working out electron configurations for atoms and ions)

More on covalent bonding - single, double & triple bond length & strength, dative bonds

Types of Crystal Structure and their relative physical properties

Introduction to intermolecular forces - intermolecular bonding

Case studies of boiling points related to intermolecular forces for a variety of compounds

Evidence & theory for hydrogen bonding in covalent hydrides, importance in other molecules


(4) States of matter (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

States of Matter Part 1: gas-liquid-solid BASIC revision notes

States of Matter Part 2: More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T

States of Matter Part 3: PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal gas behaviour

For bonding and crystal structures see section (3) links

Giant covalent structures and other big molecules


(5) Chemical energetics (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

Enthalpy changes - thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

Thermochemistry - Hess's Law and Enthalpy Calculations - reaction, combustion, formation etc.

Bond Enthalpy Calculations

Experimental methods for determining enthalpy changes and treatment of results

Some enthalpy data patterns

The combustion of linear alkanes and linear aliphatic alcohols

Some patterns in Bond Enthalpies and Bond Length

Enthalpies of Neutralisation

Enthalpies of Hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and evidence of aromatic ring structure in benzene

A set of structured practice Enthalpy Questions

Fully worked out ANSWERS to the ΔH enthalpy Q's above


(6) Electrochemistry (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Revision notes on Inorganic and organic REDOX reactions, oxidation state explained etc.  (sub-indexes of sections)

1. Basic redox definitions

2. Introducing oxidation state (with sub–index)

3. Oxidation state rules–guidelines & inorganic examples

4. Naming inorganic compounds

5. Using oxidation states to describe redox changes in inorganic reactions (with sub–index)

6. Constructing full inorganic redox equations from half–equations (with sub–index)


(7) Equilibria (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Starter GCSE Notes-reversible reactions-equilibrium

Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

Equilibrium and industrial processes

Equilibria:  Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theories

Self-ionisation of water and pH scale

Strong acids - examples (calculations only for A level 2nd year)

Weak acids - examples (calculations only for A level 2nd year)

Strong bases - examples (calculations only for A level 2nd year)

Weak bases - examples (calculations only for A level 2nd year)

Acid-base indicator theory, pH curves and titrations


(8) Reaction kinetics (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

GCSE notes for the basics of rates of reactions (kinetics!)

See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular kinetic energies (relate temperature & catalyst factors)

Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis mechanisms


Inorganic chemistry (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)


Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20. Period 1 to start of Period 4

Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 38. Period 1 to start of Period 5

Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 96. Period 1 to start of Period 7

(9) The Periodic Table: chemical periodicity (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Part 5.1 Survey of Period 3: sodium Na to argon Ar (3 pages)

5.2 Period 3 trends & explanations of physical properties

5.3 Period 3 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions


(10) Group 2 (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

s-block elements

Part 7 s-block Group 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals 7.1 Introduction

Group 1 Alkali Metals - data and graphs

Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - data and graphs

Group 1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals - General trends down the group and formulae

Group 1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals - Oxygen reaction & oxides

Group 1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals - Water reaction & hydroxides

Group 1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals - Acid reaction & salts

Group 1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals - Chlorine reaction - halides

Group 1/2 Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals - Carbonates & hydrogen carbonates

Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - Solubility trends of OH, NO3, SO4, CO3


(11) Group 17 (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Halogen elements (also p-block elements)

Group 17 The Halogens

Group 17 Halogens - Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data

Group 17 Halogens - Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend

Group 17 Halogens - Reactions of halogens with other elements

Group 17 Halogens - Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid

Group 17 Halogens - Tests for halogens and halide ions

Group 17 Halogens - Extraction of halogens from natural sources

Group 17 Halogens - Uses of halogens & compounds

Group 17 Halogens - Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions

Group 17 Halogens - Volumetric analysis - titrations of chloride ions/iodine with silver nitrate/sodium thiosulfate

Group 17 Halogens - Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links

Group 17 Halogens - Chemical bonding in halogen compounds

Group 17 Halogens - Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry


(12) Nitrogen and sulfur (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Group 15 Introduction : Nitrogen compounds chemistry

Group 16 Introduction : Sulfur compounds chemistry

Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

Fossil fuel air pollution - effects of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides


Organic chemistry (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)


(13) An introduction to AS Level organic chemistry (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to organic chemical reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained

Revision notes on molecule shapes - section added on the bond angles of organic molecules

Lots and lots of examples of naming and different ways of representing organic molecules

The Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes

Revision notes on the structure and naming of ALKENES (including cyclo- and many isomers

Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes)

Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS, ETHERS including isomers

Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones

Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

INDEX of isomerism & stereochemistry of organic compounds notes

General introduction and definition of isomerism, structural isomerism - chain, positional, functional group and tautomerism types of isomerism

STEREOISOMERISM general definition, E/Z (geometric/geometrical cis/trans) isomerism

Stereoisomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism examples and chiral auxiliary synthesis


(14) Hydrocarbons (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

The chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry revision notes INDEX

The Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes

Fractional distillation of crude oil and uses of products

Modification of alkanes by cracking, isomerisation and reforming

Complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes and environmental pollution

Modification of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, alternative fuels and global warming

Chlorination and bromination of alkanes, reaction mechanisms and uses of products

Free radical chlorination/bromination to give halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides)

Combined multiple choice and type in name quiz on the structure and naming of alkanes

Matching pair quiz on hydrocarbon structure


(15) Halogen compounds (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes)

Laboratory synthesis & industrial manufacture of halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) from alcohols, alkanes, alkenes

Reactivity trends of halogenoalkanes - introduction to their nucleophilic substitution reactions, the substitution reaction between halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) & water, experiments with silver nitrate solution

The substitution reaction of halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) with sodium/potassium hydroxide to give alcohols

The nucleophilic substitution reaction between halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) and potassium cyanide and hydrolysis of nitriles to carboxylic acids

The substitution reaction between halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) and ammonia and amines forming primary, secondary and tertiary amines

The elimination reactions of halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes) with potassium hydroxide to give alkenes

Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to give alcohols]

with extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, rate expression, activated complex etc.

Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile [SN1 or SN2]

Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc. [SN1 or SN2]


(16) Hydroxy compounds (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

INDEX of all revision notes on ALCOHOLS (and mention of ethers)

Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS including isomeric ethers

The laboratory synthesis and manufacture of alcohols

Physical properties (boiling points, solubility) and intermolecular forces

Combustion of alcohols, enthalpies of combustion and use as fuels

Controlled oxidation of alcohols with selected oxidising agents

Miscellaneous reactions with: (1) metallic sodium, (2) acid chlorides, (iii) carboxylic acids

Halogenation with hydrogen halides: Conversion of alcohols to halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes)

Chemical tests for alcohols

Examples of uses of alcohols


(17) Carbonyl compounds (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on ALDEHYDES and KETONES

Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones

Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones and intermolecular bonding forces

Methods of preparing aldehydes and ketones

The structure and reactivity of aldehydes and ketones and nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide

(also includes the hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles to carboxylic acids)

The reduction of aldehydes and ketones with NaBH4 and LiAlH4 and reduction of nitriles

Examples of addition - elimination condensation reactions of aldehydes and ketones including with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine for identification

The oxidation of aldehydes and ketones, link with chemical tests and the iodoform reaction

The uses of aldehydes and ketones and their occurrence in nature


(18) Carboxylic acids and derivatives (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

Structure & naming of carboxylic acids and derivatives

Physical properties of carboxylic acids - trends discussed & explained (mpts, bpts, solubility, odours!)

Synthetic routes & methods of preparing carboxylic acids

The weakly acidic nature and general reactions of carboxylic acids acting as acids

Selective reduction of carboxylic acids - use of products in organic synthesis

Esters - preparation, reactions including hydrolysis and transesterification


(19) Nitrogen compounds (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

INDEX of all ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUND chemistry pages

Methods of synthesising amines (aliphatic and aromatic), includes reaction of amines with halogenoalkanes

The chemistry of NITRILES - molecular structure, preparations and reactions


(20) Polymerisation (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Introduction to addition polymers: poly(ethene), poly(propene), polystyrene, PVC, PTFE - structure, uses

More on the uses of plastics, issues with using plastics, solutions and recycling methods

Polymerisation of alkenes to addition polymers - structure, properties, uses of poly(alkene) polymers


(21) Organic synthesis (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

All the synthetic routes you need to know about are based on the functional group chemistry of sections (14) to (19)


Analysis (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)


(22) Analytical techniques (CIE 9701 AS and A level chemistry)

Index of all spectroscopy pages and introduction

Index of infrared spectroscopy notes - analysis of infrared spectra of organic compounds

Introduction to mass spectrometry

Index of mass spectroscopy notes - examples of mass spectrometry of organic compounds


Physical chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

(23) Chemical energetics (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

What happens when a salt dissolves in water and why?

Enthalpy cycles involving a salt dissolving

The Born-Haber Cycle

Introduction to Entropy

Examples of entropy values and comments

ΔS, Entropy and change of state

ΔS, Entropy changes and the feasibility of a chemical change

More on ΔG, Free energy changes, feasibility and applications

Calculating equilibrium constants from free energy change

Kinetic stability versus thermodynamic feasibility


(24) Electrochemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

Index of notes on Electrochemistry - electrolysis and battery-cells

Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

Redox equilibria, half-cell reactions and electrode potentials

Simple cells notation and construction

The hydrogen electrode and standard conditions

Half-cell potentials, Electrochemical Series and using Eθcell for reaction feasibility

Electrochemical cells ('batteries') and fuel cell systems

Electrolysis and the electrochemical series

Exemplar Questions, Appendix 1. The Nernst Equation, Appendix 2 Free Energy, Cell Emf


(25) Equilibria (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

Simple Introduction to Acid-Base Theory and Weak and Strong Acids

Equilibria:  Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theories

Self-ionisation of water and pH scale

Strong acids - examples and pH calculations

Weak acids - examples & pH, Ka and pKa calculations

Strong bases - examples and pH calculations

Weak bases - examples and pH, Kb and pKb calculations

Basic notes and equations on acids, bases, salts, uses of acid-base titrations - upgrade from GCSE!

Buffers - definition, formulation and action

Buffer calculations

Case studies of buffer function

Partition equilibrium between two phases, partition coefficient, immiscible liquids and solvent extraction

Solubility product Ksp & common ion effect


(26) Reaction kinetics (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

Obtaining rate data, interpreting data, deducing orders of reaction and rate expressions

Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis mechanisms


Inorganic chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)


(27) Group 2 (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - Thermal decomposition and stability of carbonates & nitrates

Enthalpy cycles involving a salt dissolving


(28) Chemistry of transition elements (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

3d block and TRANSITION METALS:

Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals and Data

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Vanadium

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Chromium

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Manganese

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Iron

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Cobalt

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Nickel

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Copper

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes & ligands

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes and isomerism

3d block Transition Metals - Electron configuration & colour theory

3d block Transition Metals - Redox equations, feasibility, Eø

3d block Transition Metals - Catalysis

3d block Transition Metals - Redox equations

3d block Transition Metals - Stability Constants and entropy changes

3d block Transition Metals - Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula

Some 3d-block transition metal complexes, oxidation states & electrode potentials


Organic chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)


(29) An introduction to A Level organic chemistry (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

An Introduction to organic chemical reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained

shapes and bond angles of organic molecules

STEREOISOMERISM general definition

Stereoisomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism examples and chiral auxiliary synthesis


(30) Hydrocarbons (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

INDEX of all AROMATIC COMPOUND chemistry revision notes

The Structure & Naming of Aromatic Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

Proof of the structure of benzene, aromaticity and electrophilic reactivity in arenes

Sources and synthesis of arenes and physical properties of arene aromatic hydrocarbons

Electrophilic substitution - nitration of benzene and methylbenzene, properties and uses of nitro-aromatics

Electrophilic substitution - ring halogenation of benzene & methylbenzene, properties & uses of aryl halides

Electrophilic substitution - acylation of arenes, properties & uses of aromatic ketones and aromatic aldehydes

Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene (mechanisms)

Chlorination to chloro-aromatics like chlorobenzene (mechanisms)

Alkylation to give alkyl-aromatics like methylbenzene [Friedel-Crafts reaction] (mechanisms)

Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction] (mechanisms)

The structure, properties and uses of polyesters and polyamides involving aromatic monomers

Examples of aromatic compounds from the pharmaceutical industry and those found in natural products

The orientation of products on putting a 2nd substituent into a monosubstituted benzene derivative


(31) Halogen compounds (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

Electrophilic substitution - ring halogenation of benzene & methylbenzene, properties & uses of aryl halides


(32) Hydroxy compounds (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

The physical and chemical properties of phenol and some of its derivatives and their uses

Preparation & reactions of acid chlorides with water, alcohols, ammonia, amines & mechanisms


(33) Carboxylic acids and derivatives (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

INDEX of all revision notes on CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

The physical and chemical properties of benzoic acid and selected derivatives

Preparation & reactions of acid chlorides with water, alcohols, ammonia, amines & mechanisms


(34) Nitrogen compounds (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

INDEX of all ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUND chemistry pages

Methods of synthesising amines (aliphatic and aromatic), includes reaction of amines with halogenoalkanes

Acid-base chemistry of aliphatic amines, their comparative strength as bases and reactions with acids

Physical & chemical properties of phenylamine, selected derivatives including diazonium ions and dyes

The chemistry of amides e.g. reaction with acid chlorides and acid anhydrides, polyamides - formation, structure, properties and uses

Amino acids - molecular structure, preparation and reactions - two functional group chemistries


(35) Polymerisation (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

The manufacture, molecular structure, properties and uses of polyesters

Amides chemistry - a mention of polyamides

The structure, properties and uses of polyesters and polyamides involving aromatic monomers

The chemistry of amides including Nylon formation, structure, properties and uses

The polymerisation of alkenes to form addition polymers - structure, properties, uses of poly(alkene) polymers


(36) Organic synthesis (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

All the synthetic routes you need to know about are based on the functional group chemistry of sections (14) to (19) and (30) to (34)


Analysis (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)


(37) Analytical techniques (CIE 9701 A level chemistry only)

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis

chromatography (paper/thin layer)

gas chromatography

Index of all spectroscopy pages and introduction

Index of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 1H NMR spectra of organic compounds

Index of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 13C NMR spectra of organic compounds


TOP OF PAGE and sub-indexes


LINKS FOR THE OLD COURSE

1-8 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

1. ATOMS, MOLECULES and STOICHIOMETRY    2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

3. CHEMICAL BONDING    4. STATES OF MATTER    5. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS

6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY    7. EQUILIBRIA    8. REACTION KINETICS

9 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

9.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY    9.2 GROUP II  9.3 GROUP IV

9.4 GROUP VII  9.5 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS

9.6 NITROGEN AND SULPHUR

10 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

10.1 INTRODUCTORY TOPICS    10.2 HYDROCARBONS    10.3 HALOGEN DERIVATIVES

10.4 HYDROXY COMPOUNDS    10.5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

10.6 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES

10.7 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS    10.8 POLYMERISATION

11 APPLICATIONS OF CHEMISTRY

11.1 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE    11.2 APPLICATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

11.3 DESIGN AND MATERIALS


 1-8 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY  CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

Some general physical-theoretical chemistry links

(c) doc b Advanced Level PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL REVISION STUDY NOTES


1. ATOMS, MOLECULES and STOICHIOMETRY CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Atomic Structure Notes

  2. Introduction to mass spectroscopy of the elements, isotopes & relative atomic mass

  3. Chemical Calculations index - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and quizzes built into the notes, designed up to higher GCSE and basic AS calculations

  4. section 1. relative atomic mass

  5. section 2. formula mass

  6. section 3. simple reacting mass calculations

  7. section 4. % composition by mass of a compound

  8. section 5. empirical formula

  9. section 6. on reacting mass and % & theoretical yield

  10. section 7. introducing moles

  11. (c) doc b section 8. Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule

  12. section 9. moles and molar gas volume

  13. (c) doc b section 10. Reacting gas volume ratios

  14. section 11. making up solutions, concentration & molarity

  15. section 12. acid-alkali titration calculations - apparatus/analysis

  16. Structured Question worksheet including Acid-Base volumetric titration calculations (answers)


2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Atomic Structure Notes  - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar)

  2. GCSE multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & 'simple' electronic structure of atoms

  3. click me! Electronic Structure, Hydrogen Spectrum Ionisation Energies

  4. Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56), ions and the Periodic Table

  5. Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, evidence of quantum levels, ionisation energy patterns

  6. Important trends down Groups including ionisation energy

  7. click me! Period 2 trends & explanations of physical properties including ionisation energy

  8. click me! Period 3 trends & explanations of physical properties including ionisation energy

  9. Period 4 trends in physical properties including ionisation energy


3. CHEMICAL BONDING CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Introduction to BONDING

  2. Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING

  3. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules

  4. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures

  5. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING

  6. Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

  7. Introduction to Intermolecular Forces

  8. Case studies of boiling points related to intermolecular forces

  9. Evidence and theory for hydrogen bonding in simple covalent hydrides


4. STATES OF MATTER CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. States of Matter: gas-liquid-solid revision notes

  2.  States of Matter Part II More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour

  3. Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING

  4. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules

  5. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures

  6. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING


5. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  2. GCSE Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  3. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations - several linked pages

  4. click me! Enthalpy and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

  5. A2 A Level Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle - several linked pages

  6. A2 Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes - several linked pages


6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  2. Group 7 The Halogens Notes - includes electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride/brine and the uses of the products - chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. Alphabetical keyword-phrase list at top of page.

  3. Extra notes on Electrochemistry - an introduction to electrolysis, theory, electrolysis cells, industrial electrolysis process links summary, experimental methods for electrolysis, electrode equations

  4. The Mining of Minerals and the Extraction of Metals - the extraction of aluminium, copper - electrolysis purification) (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)

  5. A2 Redox equilibria, half-cell reactions and electrode potentials

  6. A2 click me! Simple cells notation and construction

  7. A2 click me! The hydrogen electrode and standard conditions

  8. A2 click me! Half-cell potentials, Electrochemical Series and using Eθcell for reaction feasibility

  9. A2 section 13. electrolysis calculations


7. EQUILIBRIA CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1.  Starter GCSE Notes-reversible reactions-equilibrium, ammonia synthesis

  2. Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  3. Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

  4. Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes

  5. click me! Solubility product Ksp & common ion effect

  6. Equilibria:  Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theories

  7. A2 click me! Self-ionisation of water and pH scale

  8. click me! Strong acids - examples and pH calculations

  9. click me! Weak acids - examples & pH, Ka and pKa calculations

  10. A2 click me! Strong bases - examples and pH calculations

  11. A2 click me! weak bases - examples and pH, Kb and pKb calculations

  12. A2 click me! Basic notes and equations on acids, bases, salts, uses of acid-base titrations - upgrade from GCSE!

  13. A2 Equilibria - Salt hydrolysis

  14. A2 click me! Acid-base indicator theory, pH curves and titrations

  15. A2 click me! Buffers - definition, formulation and action

  16. A2 click me! Buffer calculations

  17. A2 click me! Case studies of buffer function


8. REACTION KINETICS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalyst

  3. A2 obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

  4. A2 KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability


 9 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY  CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

Some general inorganic chemistry links

(c) doc b Advanced Level INORGANIC CHEMISTRY REVISION STUDY NOTES

  1. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: Chemical Identity Tests - Gives descriptions of lots of tests for gases, ions - cations and anions, organic functional groups/homologous series etc. (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)


9.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Periodic Table Notes Part 11: Compiled tables of data on Groups 1-7,0 and 3d-block-Transition Metals

  2. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 4 "Survey of Period 2 Elements and Trends" (3 linked pages)

  3. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 5 "Survey of Period 3 Elements and Trends" (3 linked pages)

  4. click me! Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20 Period 1 to start of Period 4

  5.  Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 38 Period 1 to start of Period 5

  6.  Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 96 Period 1 to start of Period 7

  7. Summary notes of Inorganic Chemical tests for gases, ions - anions or cations (use alphabetical index at top of page)


9.2 GROUP II CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 7 Group 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - detailed revision notes

  2. Multiple choice Quiz on Group 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals (easy start!)


9.3 GROUP IV CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. A2 Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge


9.4 GROUP VII CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry


9.5 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. The Transition Metals and Uses of other metals - chemical and physical properties of them, uses of iron, copper, chromium etc., and a section on the uses and applications of other non-transition metals like aluminium.

  2. Periodic Table Notes Part 11: Compiled tables of data on Groups 1-7,0 and 3d-block-Transition Metals

  3. A2 INORGANIC Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS sub-index: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt

  4. A2 TRANSITION METALS continued: Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, Eø * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potential chart * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations

  5. A2 Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction


9.6 NITROGEN AND SULPHUR CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Group 5/15 Introduction : Nitrogen : Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction : Oxygen : Sulfur

  2. GCSE notes on Oil and useful products - section on fossil fuels and environmental problems like acid rain


 10 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry
Some general organic chemistry links

(c) doc b Advanced Level ORGANIC CHEMISTRY REVISION STUDY NOTES

  1. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: Chemical Identity Tests - Gives descriptions of lots of tests for gases, ions - cations and anions, organic functional groups/homologous series etc. (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)

  2. Organic chemistry nomenclature quizzes


10.1 INTRODUCTORY TOPICS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

  2. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index)

  3. General test on type of Organic Molecule Recognition based on examples of structure and recognition of functional groups, including isomers, so the quiz is mainly on recognition of types of molecules and their structural features and classification

  4. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  5. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of alkanes

  6. Type in name Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and nomenclature of cycloalkanes)

  7. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  8. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES

  9. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of ALKENES

  10. Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes notes parts 1-3), including nomenclature of many isomers

  11. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  12. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  13. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS including isomers

  14. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS

  15. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of aliphatic ALCOHOLS

  16. Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones, including nomenclature of isomers

  17. Multiple choice on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of Aldehydes and Ketones

  18. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

  19. Revision notes on the structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

  20. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  21. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES AS need acids and esters, BUT acyl chlorides only needed for A2

  22. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure (drag and drop/printout version)

  23. Combined matching pair Exercises on organic molecular structure

  24. ALIPHATIC ORGANIC STRUCTURE and NOMENCLATURE BUMPER MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ

  25. Type in name ALIPHATIC ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE BUMPER QUIZ - on most of aliphatic nomenclature based on 6 combined quizzes: alkanes, alkenes, haloalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives (amides, acid chlorides, esters etc.)

  26. A2 Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers AS only need to know primary amines and nitriles

  27. A2 Multiple choice quiz on the Classification, Structure and Naming (nomenclature) of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  28. A2 Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  29.  MECHANISM Introduction and terms used in organic chemistry (on the mechanism pages the type of reaction, basic reaction equations and conditions are quoted which may act as a suitable reference, also a reaction index)

  30. Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR) including a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

  31.  ISOMERISM general introduction-definition

  32.  STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM general definition

  33.  Chain isomerism

  34.  Positional isomerism

  35.  Functional group isomerism

  36.  STEREOISOMERISM introduction

  37.  E/Z isomerism (Geometric/Geometrical cis/trans Isomerism)

  38.  R/S Optical Isomerism and chiral auxiliary synthesis

  39. Spotting optical isomers Q


10.2 HYDROCARBONS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

The chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry revision notes INDEX

Index of ALL advanced level revision notes on ALKENES

INDEX of all AROMATIC COMPOUND chemistry revision notes

  1. GCSE notes on Oil and useful products - The hydrocarbons from oil and their uses e.g. fuels, polymers/plastics, fossil fuels and environmental problems etc. See also Alternative and Fossil Fuel Survey and Global warming discussion page.

  2.  MECHANISM Introduction and terms used in organic chemistry (on the mechanism pages the type of reaction, basic reaction equations and conditions are quoted which may act as a suitable reference, also a reaction index)

  3.  Mechanism of the free radical chlorination/bromination of alkanes

  4.  Mechanism of the free radical thermal cracking of alkanes

  5.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes

  6.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine

  7.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of sulphuric acid to alkenes

  8.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of water to alkenes [acid catalyst]

  9.  Mechanism of free radical polymerisation of alkenes to form a polymer

  10. A2  MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms

  11. A2  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration

  12. A2  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br)

  13. A2  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms - the orientation of products in aromatic substitution

Alkanes and Petrochemical Industry INDEX

The Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes

Fractional distillation of crude oil and uses of products

Modification of alkanes by cracking, isomerisation and reforming

Complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes and environmental pollution

Modification of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures and alternative fuels

Chlorination and bromination of alkanes, reaction mechanisms and uses of products


10.3 HALOGEN DERIVATIVES CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

INDEX of ALL revision notes on HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  1.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion  hydrolysis to alcohol

  2.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile

  3.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia to make a primary amine

  4.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide


10.4 HYDROXY COMPOUNDS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

INDEX of all revision notes on ALCOHOLS (and mention of ethers)

  1. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - section on alcohols - ethanol  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  2. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS, isomers and classification into prim, secondary and tertiary alcohols

  3. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index)

  4. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols, reduction of aldehydes & ketones (use top summary table index)

  5.  Mechanism: Alcohols - conversion to halogenoalkane

  6.  Mechanism: Alcohols - elimination of water to make an alkene [acid catalysed dehydration]


10.5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

INDEX of ALL revision notes on ALDEHYDES and KETONES

  1. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes (use top summary table index)

  2.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile

  3. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.)


10.6 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

  1. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - section on carboxylic acids  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  2. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols, reduction of aldehydes & ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro-aromatic compounds (arenes) and nitriles (use top summary table index)

  3. A2  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - hydrolysis with water to give a carboxylic acid

  4. A2  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - esterification with alcohols

  5. A2  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines


10.7 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS CIE 9701 GCE A Level Chemistry

INDEX of all ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUND chemistry pages

  1. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of nitro-aromatic compounds (nitro-arenes) and nitriles (use top summary table index)

  2. A2  Other organic stereochemistry including amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes

  3. A2  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines


10.8 POLYMERISATION

  1. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - section on polymers  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  2. GCSE notes on Oil and useful products - section on polymers/plastics,

    All My synthetic polymer-plastics revision notes pages

    Introduction to addition polymers: poly(ethene), poly(propene), polystyrene, PVC, PTFE - structure, uses

    More on the uses of plastics, issues with using plastics, solutions and recycling methods

    Introducing condensation polymers: Nylon, Terylene/PET, comparing thermoplastics, fibres, thermosets

    Extra notes for more advanced level organic chemistry students

    Polymerisation of alkenes to addition polymers - structure, properties, uses of poly(alkene) polymers

    The manufacture, molecular structure, properties and uses of polyesters

    Amides chemistry - a mention of polyamides

    The structure, properties and uses of polyesters and polyamides involving aromatic monomers

    The chemistry of amides including Nylon formation, structure, properties and uses

    Stereoregular polymers -  isotactic/atactic/syndiotactic poly(propene) - use of Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    and note that polypeptides are also polyamides


 11 APPLICATIONS OF CHEMISTRY


11.1 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

  1. A2  Other organic stereochemistry including amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes

  2. A2 Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - section on enzymes. (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)


11.2 APPLICATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

  1. A2 NMR problem solving simple ones!)

  2. A2 Equilibria Part 4 Partition and solvent extraction, solubility product and ion-exchange

  3. A2 Methods of separating mixtures including chromatography (use index at top)

  4. A2 Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - brief notes on emission spectroscopy and glc gas-liquid chromatography (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)


11.3 DESIGN AND MATERIALS

All My synthetic polymer-plastics revision notes pages

Introduction to addition polymers: poly(ethene), poly(propene), polystyrene, PVC, PTFE - structure, uses

More on the uses of plastics, issues with using plastics, solutions and recycling methods

Introducing condensation polymers: Nylon, Terylene/PET, comparing thermoplastics, fibres, thermosets

Extra notes for more advanced level organic chemistry students

Polymerisation of alkenes to addition polymers - structure, properties, uses of poly(alkene) polymers

The manufacture, molecular structure, properties and uses of polyesters

Amides chemistry - a mention of polyamides

The structure, properties and uses of polyesters and polyamides involving aromatic monomers

The chemistry of amides including Nylon formation, structure, properties and uses

Stereoregular polymers -  isotactic/atactic/syndiotactic poly(propene) - use of Ziegler-Natta catalysts

and note that polypeptides are also polyamides


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