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School chemistry revision 14-16 GCSE level chemistry notes: Structure, naming & chemical properties of alkanes

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displayed formula of alkanes methane ethane propane butane pentane

ALKANES - structure and properties

Oil, useful products, environmental problems, introduction to organic chemistry  (GCSE level notes)

3. ALKANES – saturated hydrocarbons - physical & chemical properties

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INDEX of Advanced A Level revision notes on the chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry

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Sub-index for this page

3a. The structure and names of alkanes

3b The physical properties of alkanes

3c. The various ways of representing the molecular structure of alkanes

3d. The combustion reactions of Alkanes

3e. Structural isomerism of alkanes

3f. A closer look at the molecular structure of alkanes - intermolecular forces and physical properties

3g. The products of reacting chlorine with alkanes

Revision notes on alkanes in chemistry, physical properties of alkanes, uses of alkanes, chemical reactions of alkanes, help when revising for AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry, OCR GCSE gateway science chemistry, OCR 21st century science chemistry GCSE 9-1 chemistry examinations. Doc Brown's GCSE/IGCSE/O Level KS4 science CHEMISTRY Revision Notes

The ALKANE series of saturated hydrocarbons - naming, bonding, structure, physical and chemical properties

3a. The structure and names of alkanes

  • The principal source of alkanes is crude oil and natural gas (see section 2. OIL)

  • doc b oil notesAlkanes are a group of hydrocarbon molecules in which all the carbon and hydrogen atoms are only joined by single covalent bonds (e.g. C–H or C–C).

    • Carbon has an electronic combining power (valency) of 4 and hydrogen a valency of 1. So in alkane molecules carbon forms four bonds to hydrogen atoms or other carbon atoms. Hydrogen can only form one single bond to a carbon atom.

    • Check this out with the structural/displayed formula above.

    • Note that the name ends in ...ane eg methane, ethane, propane, butane etc.

    • They are obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil.

    • A hydrocarbon, e.g. an alkane, can only consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

      • If another type of atom (element) is present in the molecule it cannot be a hydrocarbon e.g. alcohols, esters and carboxylic acids contain oxygen atoms as well as carbon and hydrogen.

    • Alkanes very useful chemicals, particularly as fuels like natural gas, petrol, diesel etc.

  • Alkanes are an example of a homologous series of organic compounds.

    • A homologous series is a family of compounds which have a lot in common, but their common features must be carefully defined.

    • Features of members of a homologous series as exemplified by alkanes:

      • They have a general formula, in this case CnH2n+2 for alkanes where n = number of carbon atoms in the alkane molecule (n = 1, 2, 3 etc.).

      • Alkanes differ by the addition of an extra -CH2- unit from one member to the next e.g.

        • doc b oil notes ==> doc b oil notes ==> doc b oil notes ==> doc b oil notes for the first four alkanes

      • Members of a homologous series show a gradual variation in physical properties, e.g. with increase in size of the carbon chain the boiling point gradually rises from one alkane to the next (see table further down).

      • They have the same functional group. However, unlike all other homologous series of organic molecules, alkanes don't have a functional group of characteristic atoms displaying a particular set of chemical reactions like alkenes, alcohols or carboxylic acids, which I'm sure you will study later. BUT, they must have, and do have, a similar molecular structure, (lots of examples below) AND this similarity in molecular structure gives the alkanes a set of similar chemical properties e.g. similar chemical reactions.

      • This means you can not only predict the formula of an alkane, but you can predict the outcome of its chemical reactions.

    • See section 8. for more on homologous series and the variety of organic compounds

  • Alkanes are a family saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, so ..

    • From the general alkane formula you can deduce the molecular formula for ANY alkane (that isn't a ring compound) given the number of carbon atoms e.g.

    • when n = 1 you get CH4, n = 2 gives C2H6, n = 3 gives C3H8,

      • then C4H10, C5H12, C6H14, C7H16, C8H18 etc.

    • As with naming many organic molecule series, eth.. means 2 carbon atoms in the chain, prop... means 3 and but... means 4 etc. After that the name is directly derived from the number of carbon atoms in the chain eg pentane for 5 carbons, hexane for 6, heptane for 7, octane for 8 etc. to match with the formulae quoted above.

  • Alkanes are known as saturated molecules because other atoms cannot add to them.

    • In other words, the carbon atoms are bonded to as many other atoms as they can.

    • Being saturated means the alkane molecules have no C=C double bonds, only carbon–carbon single bonds, and so alkanes combined with the maximum number of atoms i.e. no atoms can add to it.

    • Compare alkanes with unsaturated alkenes – unsaturated with a double C=C bond.

    • For example, unlike alkenes (with a double bond to which atoms can add across) they do NOT react with, and decolourise, bromine water.

    • For the same reason, alkanes cannot be converted into polymers like poly(ethene), made from ethene.

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3b. The physical properties of alkanes

  • The relationship between molecular mass and physical properties like boiling points

    • Various physical properties of the first twenty in the alkane homologous series are shown in the table below.

    • The first four are all colourless smelly highly flammable gases.

    • The larger alkanes are colourless liquids and the bigger members of the series are white waxy solids (20th onwards).

  • General formula CnH2n+2 where n = number of carbon atoms in the linear chain (na = not applicable)

  • As the molecular mass of an alkane increases, quite clear trends in physical properties emerge ...

    • ... the melting points and boiling points of alkanes steadily increase

      • This is because the bigger the alkane molecule, the greater the attractive intermolecular bonding forces (intermolecular bonding) between the alkane molecules - this increases the kinetic energy the molecules need to overcome the these attractive forces to change from liquid to gas - see the boiling point graph below.

        • You need to distinguish this relatively intermolecular attractive force from the much stronger force of the covalent bonds between the carbon atoms (C-C) of the chain of the hydrocarbon.

      • The graph shows the boiling point of alkanes from methane CH4 (boiling point -164oC/109 K)  to tetradecane C14H30 (boiling point 254oC/527 K). [Remember K = oC + 273]

      • For alkane liquids, this increase in intermolecular forces with increase in length of carbon chain, means they also become less volatile, less flammable and more sticky (more viscous, less runny).

    • ... the density of the alkane increases, but all the liquid and solid alkane hydrocarbons float on water (density 1.00 g/cm3).

    • ... alkanes become more flammable e.g. more easily vaporised and ignited with a spark

      • this is measured by the 'flash point', this is the lowest temperature at which the alkane liquid gives off sufficient vapour to ignite in air (you don't need to know this for GCSE).

      • The first four gaseous alkanes are very flammable and explosive in air!

n molecular formula (state at RTP) abbreviated structural formula name of alkane relative molecular mass Mr melting point temperature oC/K boiling point temperature oC/K flash point oC density g/cm3
1 CH4 (g) CH4 methane 16.0 –182/91 –164/109 na 0.466(l)
2 C2H6 (g) CH3CH3 ethane 30.1 –183/90 –88/185 na 0.572(l)
3 C3H8 (g) CH3CH2CH3 propane 44.1 –190/83 –42/231 na 0.585(l)
4 C4H10 (g) CH3CH2CH2CH3 butane 58.1 –138/135 0/273 na 0.601(l)
5 C5H12 (l) CH3(CH2)3CH3 pentane 72.2 –130/143 36/309 –49 0.626
6 C6H14 (l) CH3(CH2)4CH3 hexane 86.2 –95/178 69/342 –22 0.660
7 C7H16 (l) CH3(CH2)5CH3 heptane 100.2 –90/183 99/372 –4 0.684
8 C8H18 (l) CH3(CH2)6CH3 octane 114.2 –57/216 126/399 13 0.703
9 C9H20 (l) CH3(CH2)7CH3 nonane 128.3 –51/222 151/424 31 0.718
10 C10H22 (l) CH3(CH2)8CH3 decane 142.3 –30/243 174/447 46 0.730
11 C11H24 (l) CH3(CH2)9CH3 undecane 156.3 –25/248 196/469 60 0.740
12 C12H26 (l) CH3(CH2)10CH3 dodecane 170.3 –9/264 216/489 71 0.749
13 C13H28 (l) CH3(CH2)11CH3 tridecane 184.4 –5/268 234/507 102 0.756
14 C14H30 (l) CH3(CH2)12CH3 tetradecane 198.4 4/279 250/523 99 0.763
15 C15H32 (l) CH3(CH2)13CH3 pentadecane 212.4 10/283 267/540 132 0.769
16 C16H34 (l) CH3(CH2)14CH3 hexadecane 226.4 18/291 281/554 135 0.773
17 C17H36 (l) CH3(CH2)15CH3 heptadecane 240.5 22/295 302/575 148 0.777
18 C18H38 (s) CH3(CH2)16CH3 octadecane 254.5 28/301 326/599 165 0.777
19 C19H40 (s) CH3(CH2)17CH3 nonadecane 268.5 31/304 330/603 168 0.786
20 C20H42 (s) CH3(CH2)18CH3 eicosane 282.5 37/310 343/616 na 0.789
n molecular formula abbreviated structural formula name of alkane relative molecular mass Mr melting point temperature oC/K boiling point temperature oC/K flash point oC density g/cm3
*** ***************** ************************ ******************* ************** K = oC + 273 K = oC + 273 ********* ***********

Note: (i) RTP = room temperature and pressure i.e. 20oC and 1 atm/101 kPa pressure.

(ii) The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a volatile substance evaporates to form an ignitable-flammable mixture with air in the presence of a source of ignition and continues burning after the ignition source is removed. na = not applicable to gaseous alkane

(iii) the use of parentheses (brackets) to give, for long molecules like the higher alkanes, a more convenient abbreviated formula.

e.g. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 heptane, can be expressed as CH3(CH2)5CH3

So watch out for this style of abbreviated formula

e.g. pentane can be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3,

but, using brackets, it can be written as CH3(CH2)3CH3

This style is particularly useful for long molecules like decane  CH3(CH2)8CH3

The physical states of alkanes at room temperature ~ 20oC

From the melting point and boiling point data in the  table above, you can work out the physical state of any alkane at a given temperature.

From CH4 to C4H10 the first four are colourless gases at room temperature (with a strong hydrocarbon odour - 'smell of gas').

From C5H12 to C16H34 are all colourless liquids at room temperature.

From C17H36 onwards are all white waxy solids at room temperature.

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3c. The various ways of representing the molecular structure of alkanes

The principal source of alkane hydrocarbons is crude oil –

See section 2. Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

The molecular structure of ALKANES, all the C–C and C–H bonds are single covalent bonds

(more details lower down)

(1) is the molecular formula: a summary of the totals of each atom of each element in one molecule e.g. of an alkane.

(2) is a 'shorthand' or 'condensed' version of the full alkane structural formula (3).

(3a) is called the structural formula or 2–D displayed formula: it shows how all the atoms are linked by covalent bonds in the alkane molecule (the dashes — represent bonds), but only in 2–D, not the real shape.

(3a) In a correct displayed formula for the alkane (or any other molecule), all the atoms are clearly and individually shown AND dashes to represent the covalent bonds between the atoms in the molecule. for a single bond in alkanes (C–C, C–H), or = for a double bond in alkenes (C=C as well as C–C and C–H).

(3b) Sometimes the atoms are just portrayed as spheres, but NOT considered the proper displayed formula for a molecule and such diagrams do not show the covalent bonds clearly.

(4a) is either a 3D version (3–D model) of the 'displayed formula', it gives some idea of the way the bonds are directed spatially and a better impression of the shape of the molecule.

(4b) is a '3D' 'ball and stick' model representation of the structural formula (3) showing the spatial arrangement of the atoms in the alkane.

(5) Is called a 'space filling' model and gives an idea of all the space used by the electrons around the nucleus and the electrons between the nuclei forming the bond.

Table showing the structure of the first twelve ALKANES name of alkane
(1=2)doc b oil notes   (3a)doc b oil notes   (3b)

(4a)doc b oil notes   (4b)


(main molecule in natural gas)

(1)doc b oil notes (2)doc b oil notes or CH3CH3 (3a)doc b oil notes  (3b)

(4a)doc b oil notes       (4b)

(5) you can't see the 6th H atom!

(1)doc b oil notes   (2)doc b oil notes or CH3CH2CH3

(3a)doc b oil notes (3b)  (4a)alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b


in bottled gas

(1)doc b oil notes   (2)doc b oil notes or CH3CH2CH2CH3

(3a)doc b oil notes   (3b)


in bottled gas

The full displayed formula for the first five members of the homologous series of ALKANES

These diagrams show ALL the single covalent bonds (C-H and C-C) in alkane molecules

The formulae can also be written in an abbreviated way as:

CH4,   CH3CH3,   CH3CH2CH3,   CH3CH2CH2CH3   and   CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

The final examples are shown as the full displayed formula and the molecular formula of the alkane

pentane ball and stick model




pentane, hexane and heptane in petrol


octane and nonane




Although the longer alkanes are drawn above in a linear way, in reality, the molecule is very flexible and can adopt all sorts of 'wiggly' shapes.

See the diagram below as examples of the multitude of shapes the alkane molecules can adopt! The backbone of carbon atoms of the alkane molecules are quite flexible and the longer the chain the more flexible or 'wiggly' they are!

decane, undecane and dodecane
ball and stick model diagram of alkane hydrocarbons

There are hundreds of different alkanes known and many do not have a 'straight' chain of carbon atoms, but have 'branches', some are shown below, but don't bother about their names (leave that for A level!)

alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b
alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b

           this last one with 8 carbon atoms is called 'isooctane' and is an ingredient of petrol to ensure smoother combustion in car engines.

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They are not very reactive unless they are burned! or brought into contact with very reactive molecules like chlorine

3d. The combustion reactions of Alkanes

doc b oil notesThe complete combustion of hydrocarbons e.g. an alkane in excess air

doc b oil notes

  • The diagram shows how to detect the products of hydrocarbon combustion e.g. burning candle wax.

  • Candle wax is a long chain alkane hydrocarbon molecule which should burn completely to carbon dioxide and water - however, the combustion is inefficient and soot particles are formed, which are so hot they are incandescent and give out light.

  • When hydrocarbons are burned in air a fast exothermic reaction occurs releasing heat and forming carbon dioxide and water – their formation is an oxidation reaction.

  • The water pump draws the combustion gases through the two chemical test systems in the big U tubes.

  • It is an oxidation reaction because of oxygen atom gain by the carbon and hydrogen atoms of the hydrocarbon molecules.

  • The carbon dioxide is chemically detected with limewater – with which it forms a white precipitate (milky appearance) of calcium carbonate.

  • The water is chemically detected either by

    • (i) anhydrous white copper sulphate turning blue

    • or

    • (ii) dried blue cobalt chloride paper turning pink.

  • A physical test for water is to measure its boiling point (should be 100oC), you could test the colourless liquid, if enough of it is collected.

You can do some simple experiments to see how long a candle burns in various sized beakers.

You can then plot a graph of burning times versus volume of beaker.

The candle goes out when the oxygen falls to a low value.

The candle should burn longer in a larger beaker because more oxygen from the air is available.

Equations for the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon like an alkane

doc b oil notesWhen a hydrocarbon molecule (reactant) burns in an excess of air–oxygen their are only two products of the reaction.

The carbon atoms are oxidised on combining with oxygen to form carbon dioxide molecules, and the hydrogen atoms are oxidised to water molecules ('hydrogen oxide').

Blue flames indicate complete combustion releasing lots of heat energy, but smokey yellow flames indicate incomplete combustion releasing less energy and producing dirty sooty carbon (and sometimes deadly carbon monoxide too).

See Pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, what makes a good fuel?, climate change–global warming

So complete oxidation = complete combustion

general word equation: alkane hydrocarbon + oxygen ===> carbon dioxide + water

word equations e.g. methane + oxygen ===> carbon dioxide + water

and the corresponding symbol equation is

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ===> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)

Note that one CO2 for every C, and one H2O for every two H's in the hydrocarbon molecule.

diagram of methane burning in oxygen or air balanced picture equation doc b oil notes

In terms of displayed formula the equation would be written as ...

diagram of bonds in methane oxygen water carbon dioxide for the equation of burning in oxygen or air balanced equation

... in which every individual atom is shown and how it is bonded ('connected') with other atoms in the molecule. All the dashes represent the covalent bonds between the atoms in the molecules.

This is an example of an oxidation reaction - atoms (carbon/hydrogen) have gained oxygen (become combined with oxygen).


Another example is the complete combustion of another alkane, propane ...

propane + oxygen ===> carbon dioxide + water

C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) ===> 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)

and in terms of displayed formula and balancing numbers ...

and the above diagrams show how the atoms have rearranged themselves in the reaction after the reactant bonds are broken (C–H, O=O and C–C in ethane etc. below)) and the new bonds formed in the products (C=O and O–H). Note the number of atoms of each element must be the same on each side of the equation (1C, 4H's and 4 O's, Law of Conservation of mass) and the products are different substances with different properties compared to the reactants.

See Elements, Compounds and Mixtures page for more on writing and balancing equations

for the alkanes ethane and butane etc. the word and more awkward symbol equations are ...

 (note the use of and in balancing equations is perfectly legitimate)

ethane + oxygen ===> carbon dioxide + water

2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) ===> 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)

avoiding the 1/2 molecule! or not avoiding it!

C2H6(g) + 31/2O2(g) ===> 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)


butane + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water

2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) ===> 8CO2(g) + 10H2O(l)

or not avoiding not the 1/2 molecule !

C4H10(g) + 61/2O2(g) ===> 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(l)


and for pentane the equations are ...

pentane + oxygen ===> carbon dioxide + water

C5H12(l) + 8O2(g) ===> 5CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)


See also Calorimeter methods of determining energy changes - burning fuels

For notes and equations on incomplete combustion see ...

... Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

Uses of propane gas C3H8

In the UK propane gas is used from red coloured cylinders for domestic heating and cooking.

BUT, it is also used in cutting equipment for the demolition and recycling of metal structures.

In the past oxy-acetylene cutters were used, but the hydrocarbon acetylene, (now called ethyne, C2H2), is a very dangerous explosive gas and so propane, another hydrocarbon, is used instead - as an oxy-propane blow torch.

The oxygen is supplied in a separate cylinder, well away from the propane cylinder for safety reasons!

The two gases are piped to the cutting tool where they are mixed and ignited to give a powerful cutting torch - illustrated below.

oxy-propane blow torch metal cutting equipment uses of propane gcse school chemistry

Quite a 'fireworks' display in the end from: C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) ===> 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)  - very exothermic !!!

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3e. More on ALKANESsaturated hydrocarbons

(some of these sections may not be required by your GCSE syllabus)

  • Structural isomerism
    • Structural isomerism occurs when two or more compounds have the same chemical formula but have different structures. e.g. for the molecular formula C4H10 there are two possibilities – one 'linear' and one with carbon chain 'branching', both isomeric structures are shown in three ways ...
    • butane:
    • , , all 3 the same!
    • and its isomer is methylpropane (shown below)
    • , ,   all 3 the same, but different structure to the 3 above!
    • The various molecular structures for the same molecular formula are called isomers.
    • What you should realise is that isomers can exist because the atoms can be arranged in different ways as long as the valency (numerical combining power) of each atom is obeyed i.e. carbon forms four bonds and hydrogen forms one bond.
    • So, in the two isomers above, each molecule has three carbon – carbon single bonds and eight carbon – hydrogen bonds.
    • Can you work out the structures of the 3 isomers of C5H12 ? (you will find enough to work out the answers on the Advanced A Level page on structural isomerism)
    • Isomers show variation in physical properties which depend upon the strength of the intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are due to weak electrical attractive forces that exist between all molecules.
      • e.g. 'linear' butane has a higher boiling point than the 'branched' methylpropane (diagrams above).

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3f. A closer look at the molecular structure of alkanes - intermolecular forces and physical properties

diagram of intermolecular bonding forces between alkane hydrocarbon molecules

CONCEPT: The dotted lines represent the weak intermolecular bonding forces of attraction between the molecules.

The bigger the molecule, the more dotted line 'connections' there are, the bigger the intermolecular forces!

  • As we have seen at the start of this page, for a homologous series the strength of intermolecular forces (intermolecular bonding) increases as the carbon chain length increases, exemplified by the alkanes illustrated above with 1-12 and 20 carbon atoms in the chain.
    • This leads to a steady increase in melting point, boiling point, density and, if liquid, the viscosity too (see the alkanes data table above and graph in 3a).
    • This is because the attractive forces are a function of the potential surface area–surface area contact between the molecules.
    • As the chain length increases the surface–surface contact over which the intermolecular forces operate must increase per molecule.
    • This means more kinetic energy is needed for the alkanes to boil and change from a liquid to a gas.
  • For example in the series ...
    • From methane ... ethane ... propane ... petrol ... oils ... grease ... waxes etc. the melting point/boiling points rise and so does the viscosity (stickiness! less runny, more sticky) as the carbon chain length of the alkane increases.
    • This trend also indicated by the change in alkanes from gases to liquids to solids ...
      • ... illustrated above by the boiling points of alkane hydrocarbons obtained from crude oil.
      • See 2. Uses of Oil Products page for more details – the use of alkanes is very strongly linked to their physical properties.
  • A closer look at the chemical bonding in alkane molecules - dot and cross diagrams
    • Alkanes are relatively small molecules in which all the chemical bonds are covalent bonds.
    • All the bonds in alkane molecules are single bonds i.e. C–C carbon – carbon or single C–H carbon – hydrogen bonds.
    • Each carbon atom forms four single bonds and hydrogen atoms form one single bond.
    • All single covalent bonds are formed by sharing a pair of electrons e.g. one from each of a carbon atom and a hydrogen atom, or two carbon atoms contributing (sharing) an electron each to the covalent bond.
    • Four (c) doc b hydrogen atoms (1 outer electron) and one  (c) doc b carbon atom (four outer electrons) combine to form methane so that the hydrogen atoms are electronically like helium (full outer shell of 2 electrons) and the carbon atom becomes like neon (with a full outer shell of 8 electrons, the two inner electrons of carbon are not shown).
    • (c) doc b or the alkane methane
    • Similarly six hydrogen atoms combine with two carbon atoms to form the ethane molecule.
    • or the alkane ethane
    • The only difference with ethane (and the rest of the alkanes) is the presence of the carbon - carbon bond, but you are still making the stable outer octet of electrons around each carbon atom.
    • More GCSE notes on molecules and covalent bonding

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3g. CHLOROALKANES (halogenoalkanes) - the products of reacting chlorine with alkanes

  • Alkanes are usually not very reactive unless burned! BUT they will react with reactive chemicals like chlorine when heated or subjected to uv light to form chlorinated hydrocarbons.
  • Despite the reactivity of chlorine you still need something extra activation energy to initiate the reaction.
  • A substitution reaction occurs and a chloroalkane is formed e.g.
  • a hydrogen is swapped for a chlorine and the hydrogen combines with a chlorine atom
    • (i) methane + chlorine ==> chloromethane + hydrogen chloride
      • CH4  +  Cl2 ==->  CH3Cl  +  HCl
      • alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b +  Cl2  ===> (c) doc b + HCl
    • (ii) ethane + chlorine ==> chloroethane + hydrogen chloride
      • C2H6 + Cl2  ===> C2H5Cl + HCl
      •   +  Cl2 ==> +  HCl
  • Chloromethane and chloroethane are gases at room temperature, but bigger chloroalkane molecules are useful solvents in the laboratory or industry but they are still quite volatile and chlorohydrocarbon vapours can be harmful if breathed in.

INDEX of Advanced A Level revision notes on the chemistry of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

GCSE/IGCSE/O Level Oil Products & Organic Chemistry INDEX PAGE

ALL my Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry revision notes

click me! A Level Notes  on the structure & naming of ALKANESclick me!

Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (easier–foundation–level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (harder–higher–level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry

and (c) doc b 3 linked easy Oil Products gap–fill quiz worksheets

ALSO gap–fill ('word–fill') exercises originally written for ...

... AQA GCSE Science (c) doc b Useful products from crude oil AND (c) doc b Oil, Hydrocarbons & Cracking etc.

... OCR 21st C GCSE Science (c) doc b Worksheet gap–fill C1.1c Air pollutants etc ...

... Edexcel GCSE Science Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation etc ...

... each set are interlinked, so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes

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14-16 gcse organic chemistry, revision study notes for 14-16 school chemistry AQA Edexcel OCR IGCSE/GCSE 9-1 chemistry science topics modules for studying the chemistry of ALKANES, examples of saturated hydrocarbon molecules, molecular structure, the uses of alkanes, chemical properties of alkanes, reactions of alkanes, complete combustion of alkanes, burning alkanes as useful fuels like methane,  reaction of alkanes methane CH4 and ethane C2H6 with chlorine  C3H8, butane C4H10 gcse chemistry revision notes igcse revising KS4 science

INDEX of Advanced A Level revision notes on the chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry

 Doc Brown's Chemistry 


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