UK GCSE level age ~14-16, ~US grades 9-10 Biology revision notes re-edit 16/05/2023 [SEARCH]

 Flowering plants: 3. (a) Fertilisation and (b) the development of seeds and fruit

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(3a) Fertilisation

fertilisation of flowering plant ovule ovary pollen tube grains male sex cell femal sex cell nucleusFertilisation involves the joining of the male and females plant cells.

After a pollen grain has landed on a ripe stigma the formation of a pollen tube is triggered (diagram on right).

The pollen tube grows down from the stigma through the style to the ovary.

The male nucleus is conveyed down the pollen tube to the ovary.

The male nucleus then joins with the female sex cell inside an ovule to complete the fertilisation process.

Therefore, genetically, when the two nuclei join together, the completed fertilisation is 2 gametes ==> zygote, a complete set of chromosomes.


(3b) Formation of seed and fruit

After fertilisation the ovule, inside the ovary, develops into the seed.

Every seed contains a dormant embryo plant (dormant means inactive).

The embryonic plant has a food store which it can utilise when conditions are right for it to grow - the process of germination.

The ovary develops into a fruit structure around the seed.

Plants produce many seeds because do not germinate and grow into healthy plants.


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