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Enzymes: 13. Making a wholemeal loaf using a Roman bread recipe - ingredient amounts of flour, yeast, salt, honey and water

Doc Brown's Biology exam study revision notes

There are various sections to work through, after 1 they can be read and studied in any order.

Sub-index of biology notes on enzymes and digestion


Doc Brown's Very Unoriginal Roman Bread Recipe! - but an excellent example of domestic enzyme technology!

Doc Brown's Very Unoriginal Roman Bread Recipe! - but an excellent example of domestic enzyme technology!

This recipe makes about 2 kg of bread (just over 4 lbs).

1. Weight out 500 g strong wholemeal bread flour plus 500 g strong white flour and mix in large bowl.

(I use Doves Farm organic flour in next village, other brands are available!)

2. Have two sachets of dried yeast (local village Co-Op!) and a whisk handy.

3. Add one teaspoon of sugar to 450 to 500 (max) ml of warm water (~30oC) and whisk in the dried yeast - thoroughly mix evenly.

Mix 3 tablespoons of honey (or 1 of honey + 1 of golden syrup + 1 of treacle, a sweeter mix I personally enjoy) plus 1 teaspoon of salt in 450 to 500 (max) ml of warm water.

I then mix the two in a very large jug with a large desert spoon of olive oil.

4. Rapidly add the yeast/sugars/olive oil mixture to the flour, mix well and knead the dough for 15 minutes.

The kneading slightly oxygenates the yeast and 'energises it', even though its an anaerobic respiration reaction!

Research has shown that yeast is activated by the presence of a little oxygen - not everything is anaerobic chemistry in bread making!

5. More great chemistry. Silicone based non-stick baking pans, which I use without greasing - they have proved a most excellent buy.

6. Find warm place and allow bread to rise thanks to the production of carbon dioxide gas.

glucose (sugar) == enzyme zymase ==> ethanol + carbon dioxide

C6H12O6(aq) ====> 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g) 

However, the ethanol (alcohol) a liquid at room temperature, will vapourise in the dough in the oven to give a little bit more of a rising action.

7. It should rise nicely over at least an hour in a warm location.

Then bake for 40-45 minutes in a pre-heated oven at 180oC (~356oF).

8. Time to sample the produce with its lovely earthy texture and taste - as the Roman's would have enjoyed?!

9. Add butter and eat! Even better, toast it.

The flavour of the honey really comes out of this crispy delicacy  and the butter becomes optional!

See also Enzymes and Biotechnology and ethanol from fermentation (gcse chemistry revision notes)


Summary of learning objectives and key words or phrases

How to make a wholemeal loaf using a Roman bread recipe ingredient amounts of flour yeast salt sugar water baking temperature and time.


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INDEX of biology notes on enzymes

(Enzymes are also dealt with in my GCSE chemistry notes chemistry - biotechnology)

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INDEX of biology notes on enzymes and digestion

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