UK GCSE level age ~14-16, ~US grades 9-10 Biology revision notes
Enzymes: 10. Summary of the human body's enzyme production sites and digestive system
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10. Summary of the human body's enzyme production sites and digestive system
The organs of the digestive system their adaptations and what they do - emphasis on enzymes
Salivary glands in mouth - these moisten food and produce saliva containing the enzyme amylase which catalyses the breakdown of carbohydrates like starch. The chewing action of the teeth mashes up the food and increases the surface area the enzymes can act on - chemistry - rates of reaction factor.
The oesophagus (Gullet) - connects the mouth with the stomach - has muscular walls that move food along by peristalsis.- wave-like movement of the tissue - a sort of squeeze and push effect when the muscle linings contract and then relax.
The stomach - mixes and mashes up food using strong muscular walls. It produces the protease enzyme, pepsin that breaks down proteins. It also produces hydrochloric acid to kill harmful microbes like bacteria AND create the right pH ~2 for enzymes like protease to work function properly. Note the double function.
The liver - produces alkaline bile that neutralises stomach acid to modify the pH for other enzymes to act, bile emulsifies fats-lipids to help in their breakdown by enzymes and also stores carbohydrates as glycogen. The emulsification increases the surface area of the fat drops to increase the rate of the enzymic breakdown - rates of reaction factor - more chance of fruitful enzyme-substrate collision producing fatty acids and glycerol which diffuse into the lymphatic system.
The small bag of the gall bladder is where bile is stored before it is released into the small intestine.
Pancreas - glandular tissue that produces and releases enzymes into the small intestine - protease (breaks down proteins into amino acids), amylase (breaks down carbohydrates like starches) and lipase enzymes (breaks down lipid fats).
The small intestine (duodenum and ileum) - produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes and is the site where the small digested food molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream. Note that large insoluble molecules cannot be absorbed into the body.
Specialised cells in the large intestine absorb excess water and makes solid waste left over from digested food.
The anus and rectum is where most indigestible food ends up with the rest of the body's waste and stored as faeces, which we eject through our anus with the help of strong muscles!
Summary of learning objectives and key words or phrases
Know some of the most important sites in the human body's where enzymes are produced, particularly with reference to the digestive system.
(Enzymes are also dealt with in my GCSE chemistry notes chemistry - biotechnology)
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