Doc Brown's GCSE OCR Gateway Science-Biology Revision Notes

PLEASE NOTE NEW revision summaries for the NEW OCR Gateway Science A GCSE Biology and NEW OCR GCSE Gateway Combined Science A Biology courses: Revision for Paper 1 (Topics 1-3) and  Paper 2 (Topics 5-6) STARTING with Y10 in Sept. 2016 onwards, first exams in 2018

OCR GCSE Gateway Science Biology Module B5 The Living Body

Unit-Item B5a Skeletons

  1. Movement is part of our daily lives and efficient movement relies on a functioning skeletal and muscular system, however, Accidents do happen and bones can be broken!

  2. This unit aims to provide the necessary science to understand the structure of bones and joints, and how damage can be detected, using contemporary technological developments.

  3. Suggested practical and research activities you might have done to revise from

    • Examine X-rays of skeletons:

      • child and adult

      • arthritic joint

      • with rickets

      • with fractures.

    • Examine human and animal skeletons and identify some of the bones.

    • Research technologies which assess the health of bones eg bone density scans.

    • Carry out an experiment to compare the strengths of solid and hollow structures.

  4. Know that:

    • some animals, including worms, do not have a skeleton made of hard material

    • some animals, including insects, have an external skeleton

    • some animals, including humans, have an internal skeleton.

  5. Know that an insectís external skeleton is made of chitin.

  6. Be able to describe the different forms of internal skeleton:

    • made only of cartilage (limited to sharks)

    • made mainly of bone with some cartilage (outer ear, nose, end of long bones) (to include humans).

  7. Be able to describe the different types of fractures of bones:

    • simple

    • compound

    • green stick.

  8. Know that X-rays are used to detect fractures.

  9. Be able to describe a joint as the place where two or more bones meet (joined by ligaments) and recognise that the bones are moved by muscles (attached by tendons).

  10. Be able to identify the locations in the human body of a fixed joint (skull), hinge joint (elbow, knee), and ball and socket joint (shoulder, hip).

  11. Be able to identify the main bones (humerus, ulna, radius) and muscles (biceps, triceps) in a human arm.

  12. Be able to explain why an internal skeleton is advantageous compared with an external skeleton:

    • framework of body

    • can grow with body

    • easy to attach muscles

    • flexibility

  13. Understand that cartilage and bone are living tissues.

  14. Be able to describe the structure of a long bone:

    • head with covering of cartilage

    • shaft containing bone marrow with blood vessels.

  15. Be able to explain why long bones that are hollow are advantageous, in terms of weight and strength.

  16. HT only: Understand that cartilage and bone are susceptible to infection but can grow and repair themselves.

  17. HT only: Be able to describe how, in humans, the skeleton starts off as cartilage but is ossified:

    • cartilage is slowly replaced by the addition of calcium and phosphorus (ossification); and that whether a person is still growing can be determined by the amount of  cartilage present.

  18. Know that, despite being very strong, bones can easily be broken by a sharp knock.

  19. Be able to explain why elderly people are more prone to fractures, limited to osteoporosis.

  20. HT only: Be able to explain why it can be dangerous to move a person with a suspected fracture.

  21. Be able to describe the structure of synovial joints: synovial fluid, synovial membrane, ligaments, cartilage.

  22. Be able to describe the types and range of movement in:

    • a ball and socket

    • hinge joint.

  23. HT only: Be able to explain the functions in a synovial joint of:

    • synovial fluid

    • synovial membrane

    • cartilage

    • ligaments.

  24. Be able to describe how the biceps and triceps muscles operate (by contraction and relaxation) as antagonistic muscles to bend or straighten the arm.

  25. HT only: Be able to explain how the arm bending and straightening is an example of a lever.




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