Appreciate that many complex chemical processes
take place in our cells and organs to ensure an optimum functional state.
You should develop your
knowledge about how a constant internal environment is achieved in complex
living organisms such as ourselves.
Check whether you did the ‘changing skin temperatures’ experiment
eg the changing skin temperature down an arm or a leg and the graph of the
Appreciate the use of thermal
blankets as a contemporary application of science, along with work on heat
stroke as examples the benefits of
Appreciate some of the automatic control systems in
your life eg central heating, air
conditioning, cruise control in cars, incubators.
Know that the body works
to maintain steady levels of temperature, water, and carbon dioxide and that
this is essential to life.
Appreciate the use of thermal first aid blankets after activities such as marathons.
Appreciate the dangers to older people
of hypothermia and telling them how to prevent
Know that the core temperature of the human body is normally maintained at
Be able to describe the appropriate procedures
to measure body temperature:
a) where (ear, finger, mouth, or anus)
b) how - using a clinical thermometer,
sensitive strips, digital recording probes, or thermal imaging.
Be able to describe how heat can be gained
or retained (by respiration, shivering, exercise, less sweating, less blood
flow near skin surface, or clothing).
Be able to describe how more heat can be
lost (by sweating, or more blood flow near skin).
Know what diabetes is and
how it can be managed.
Be able to name and locate the pancreas.
Know that the pancreas produces the hormone insulin.
Know that Type 1
diabetes is caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin.
Be able to describe
how insulin travels around the body.
Understand that maintaining a constant
internal environment involves balancing bodily inputs and outputs and is
Be able to explain why factors are kept at steady levels by
automatic control systems (limited to temperature, water content and carbon
HT only: Be able to explain how negative feedback mechanisms are used to maintain a
constant internal environment.
Be able to explain how sweating
increases heat transfer to the environment by evaporation of sweat which
requires heat, so removing heat from the skin.
HT only: Be able to explain how vasodilation and vasoconstriction
increase or decrease transfer of heat to the environment.
Appreciate and understand that
the body temperature of 37°C is the optimum temperature for the action of
HT only: Understand that the body temperature of 37°C is linked to enzyme action.
HT only: Be able to explain how blood temperature is
monitored by the brain which will bring about temperature control mechanisms via
the nervous and hormonal systems.
Be able to describe how high temperatures
can cause heat stroke and dehydration and if untreated, death.
Be able to describe how very
low temperatures can cause hypothermia and if untreated, death.
insulin controls blood sugar levels.
HT only: Be able to explain how insulin helps to regulate blood
Be able to explain how Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled by diet but
that Type 1 diabetes also needs to be treated by insulin dosage.
HT only: Explain how the
dosage of insulin needed to be taken by a person with Type 1 diabetes
depends upon diet and activity.
Be able to explain why responses
controlled by hormones are usually slower than responses controlled by the