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Doc Brown's GCSE OCR Gateway Science-Biology Revision Notes

OCR GCSE Gateway Science Biology Module B1 Understanding Organisms

Unit-Item B1f Staying in balance

  1. Appreciate that many complex chemical processes take place in our cells and organs to ensure an optimum functional state.

  2. You should develop your knowledge about how a constant internal environment is achieved in complex living organisms such as ourselves.

  3. Check whether you did the ‘changing skin temperatures’ experiment eg the changing skin temperature down an arm or a leg and the graph of the results.

  4. Appreciate the use of thermal blankets as a contemporary application of science, along with work on heat stroke as examples the benefits of technological developments.

  5. Appreciate some of the automatic control systems in your life eg central heating, air conditioning, cruise control in cars, incubators.

  6. Know that the body works to maintain steady levels of temperature, water, and carbon dioxide and that this is essential to life.

  7. Appreciate the use of thermal first aid blankets after activities such as marathons.

  8. Appreciate the dangers to older people of hypothermia and telling them how to prevent it.

  9. Know that the core temperature of the human body is normally maintained at approximately 37°C.

  10. Be able to describe the appropriate procedures to measure body temperature:

    • a) where (ear, finger, mouth, or anus)

    • b) how - using a clinical thermometer, sensitive strips, digital recording probes, or thermal imaging.

  11. Be able to describe how heat can be gained or retained (by respiration, shivering, exercise, less sweating, less blood flow near skin surface, or clothing).

  12. Be able to describe how more heat can be lost (by sweating, or more blood flow near skin).

  13. Know what diabetes is and how it can be managed.

  14. Be able to name and locate the pancreas.

  15. Know that the pancreas produces the hormone insulin.

  16. Know that Type 1 diabetes is caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin.

  17. Be able to describe how insulin travels around the body.

  18. Understand that maintaining a constant internal environment involves balancing bodily inputs and outputs and is called homeostasis.

  19. Be able to explain why factors are kept at steady levels by automatic control systems (limited to temperature, water content and carbon dioxide).

  20. HT only: Be able to explain how negative feedback mechanisms are used to maintain a constant internal environment.

  21. Be able to explain how sweating increases heat transfer to the environment by evaporation of sweat which requires heat, so removing heat from the skin.

  22. HT only: Be able to explain how vasodilation and vasoconstriction increase or decrease transfer of heat to the environment.

  23. Appreciate and understand that the body temperature of 37°C is the optimum temperature for the action of many enzymes.

  24. HT only: Understand that the body temperature of 37°C is linked to enzyme action.

  25. HT only: Be able to explain how blood temperature is monitored by the brain which will bring about temperature control mechanisms via the nervous and hormonal systems.

  26. Be able to describe how high temperatures can cause heat stroke and dehydration and if untreated, death.

  27. Be able to describe how very low temperatures can cause hypothermia and if untreated, death.

  28. Know that insulin controls blood sugar levels.

  29. HT only: Be able to explain how insulin helps to regulate blood sugar

  30. Be able to explain how Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled by diet but that Type 1 diabetes also needs to be treated by insulin dosage.

  31. HT only: Explain how the dosage of insulin needed to be taken by a person with Type 1 diabetes depends upon diet and activity.

  32. Be able to explain why responses controlled by hormones are usually slower than responses controlled by the nervous system..

 

 

 

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