Doc Brown's GCSE OCR 21st Century Science-Biology Revision Notes

OCR GCSE 21st Century Additional Science Biology Module B6 Brain and mind

B6.1 How do animals respond to changes in their environment?

  • 1. know that a stimulus is a change in the environment of an organism

  • 2. understand that simple reflexes produce rapid involuntary responses to stimuli

  • 3. understand that the simplest animals rely on reflex actions for the majority of their behaviour

  • 4. understand that these reflex actions help to ensure that the simplest animals respond to a stimulus in a way that is most likely to result in their survival, to include finding food and sheltering from predators

  • 5. know examples of simple reflexes in humans, to include newborn reflexes (eg stepping, grasping, sucking), pupil reflex, knee jerk and dropping a hot object

  • 6. understand that nervous co-ordination, including simple reflexes, requires:

    • a) receptors to detect stimuli

    • b) processing centres to receive information and coordinate responses

    • c) effectors to produce the response

  • 7. understand that receptors and effectors can form part of complex organs, for example:

    • a) light receptor cells in the retina of the eye

    • b) hormone secreting cells in a gland

    • c) muscle cells in a muscle

  • 8. understand that nervous systems use electrical impulses for fast, short-lived responses including simple reflexes

  • 9. know that hormones are chemicals that are produced in glands, travel in the blood and bring about slower, longer-lasting responses, eg insulin and oestrogen

  • 10. know that the development of nervous and hormonal communication systems depended on the evolution of multicellular organisms.