Doc Brown's GCSE OCR 21st Century Science-Biology Revision Notes

PLEASE NOTE NEW revision summaries for the NEW OCR 21st Century Science B GCSE Biology B and NEW OCR GCSE 21st Century Combined Science B Biology courses: Revision for Chapters 1-3) and  Paper 2 (Chapters 4-6) STARTING with Y10 in Sept. 2016 onwards, first exams in 2018

OCR GCSE 21st Century Additional Science Biology Module B6 Brain and mind

B6.1 How do animals respond to changes in their environment?

  • 1. know that a stimulus is a change in the environment of an organism

  • 2. understand that simple reflexes produce rapid involuntary responses to stimuli

  • 3. understand that the simplest animals rely on reflex actions for the majority of their behaviour

  • 4. understand that these reflex actions help to ensure that the simplest animals respond to a stimulus in a way that is most likely to result in their survival, to include finding food and sheltering from predators

  • 5. know examples of simple reflexes in humans, to include newborn reflexes (eg stepping, grasping, sucking), pupil reflex, knee jerk and dropping a hot object

  • 6. understand that nervous co-ordination, including simple reflexes, requires:

    • a) receptors to detect stimuli

    • b) processing centres to receive information and coordinate responses

    • c) effectors to produce the response

  • 7. understand that receptors and effectors can form part of complex organs, for example:

    • a) light receptor cells in the retina of the eye

    • b) hormone secreting cells in a gland

    • c) muscle cells in a muscle

  • 8. understand that nervous systems use electrical impulses for fast, short-lived responses including simple reflexes

  • 9. know that hormones are chemicals that are produced in glands, travel in the blood and bring about slower, longer-lasting responses, eg insulin and oestrogen

  • 10. know that the development of nervous and hormonal communication systems depended on the evolution of multicellular organisms.




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