Helpful revision notes for Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus

Indexes to help links for all GCSE and IGCSE science courses


Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus

Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper


General CELL BIOLOGY and GENETICS revision notes index

Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper

Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function - comparison of subcellular structures

Stem cells and medical uses, and an introduction to cell differentiation and specialisation

Cell division - cell cycle - mitosis, meiosis, sexual/asexual reproduction, binary fission, cancer cells 

Microscopy - the development and use of microscopes in biology - optical and electron

Diffusion - including demonstration, factors & Fick's Law, osmosis investigation and active transport

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organisms

Respiration - aerobic/anaerobic in plants, fungi & animals, substrates/products, experimental investigations

Enzymes - structure, functions, optimum conditions, investigation experiments, human digestion system

See also Enzymes and Biotechnology (gcse chemistry notes)

Culturing microorganisms like bacteria - testing antibiotics and antiseptics

Sub-index of Genetics Notes - from DNA to GM and lots in between!

Cell division - cell cycle - mitosis, meiosis, sexual/asexual reproduction, binary fission and cancer 

DNA and RNA structure and Protein Synthesis and an experiment to extract DNA

An introduction to genetic variation and the formation and consequence of mutations

Introduction to the inheritance of characteristics and genetic diagrams (including Punnett squares)  including technical terms, Mendel's work and inherited genetic disorder, genetic testing

The human GENOME project - gene expression, chromosomes, alleles, genotype, phenotype, variations, uses of genetic testing including 'pros and cons'

Inherited characteristics and human sexual reproduction, genetic fingerprinting and its uses

Genetic engineering: uses - making insulin, medical applications, GM crops & food security

More complicated genetics: Sex-linked genetic disorders, inheritance of blood groups

See also section on Cloning - tissue culture of plants and animals


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General HUMAN BIOLOGY revision notes - including some other appropriate animal biology

See also cell biology index above too

Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper

Introduction to the organisation of cells => tissues => organs => organ systems (e.g. in humans)

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organisms (includes small intestine)

See also Enzymes - section on human digestion, metabolism and synthesis  gcse biology

The human circulatory system - heart, lungs, blood, blood vessels, causes/treatment of cardiovascular disease

Homeostasis - introduction to how it functions (negative feedback systems explained) 

Homeostasis - control of blood sugar level - insulin and diabetes

Homeostasis - osmoregulation, ADH, water control, urea and ion concentrations, kidney function, dialysis

Homeostasis - thermoregulation, control of temperature

The brain - what the different parts do and the dangers if damaged

An introduction to the nervous system including the reflex arc

Hormone systems - Introduction to the endocrine system - adrenaline & thyroxine hormones

Hormone systems - menstrual cycle, contraception, fertility treatments

Respiration - aerobic and anaerobic in plants and animals, investigations

Keeping healthy - communicable diseases - pathogen infections

Keeping healthy - non-communicable diseases - risk factors for e.g. CVD, cancers, obesity, diabetes, body/mass/hip indexes

Keeping healthy - diet and exercise, diabetes, body/mass/hip indexes

Keeping healthy - defence against pathogens, infections, treating diseases, vaccination, new drugs and testing, monoclonal antibodies, detecting diseases

See also Culturing microorganisms like bacteria - testing antibiotics/antiseptics

Food tests for reducing sugars, starch, proteins and lipids

The eye - structure and function - correction of vision defects

See also Optics - lens types (convex, concave, uses), experiments, ray diagrams, correction of eye defects (gcse physics)

See also GENETICS and section on Cloning with animals


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 General PLANT BIOLOGY revision notes

See also cell biology section

Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper

Photosynthesis, importance explained, limiting factors affecting rate, leaf adaptations

Plant cells - transport, gas exchange, transpiration & experiments, absorption of nutrients, leaf & root structure

See also Diffusion, osmosis, active transport, exchange of substances - examples fully explained

Respiration - aerobic and anaerobic in plants (and animals)

Hormone control of plant growth and uses of plant hormones

Plant diseases and defences against pathogens and pests

How to produce new varieties of plants

Genetic engineering: Uses including GM crops & food security

See also Adaptations, lots explained including plant examples

and a section in Stem cells and uses - meristems in plants (at the end of the page!)

and section on plants in Cloning - tissue culture of plants


Evolution, Adaptations, Speciation and Classification

Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper

Evolution - theories and evidence, variation, speciation - new/old species & extinctions, selective breeding

Classification - domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, Linnaeus naming of organisms

Adaptations, lots of examples explained including extremophiles


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The environment,  ecology, communities, cycles, decay, sustainable food security, biodiversity

Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper

Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle, decomposition - decay investigation, biogas

Ecosystems - biotic & abiotic factors - interactions between organisms - interdependency

Food chains, food webs, trophic levels and biomass

Adaptations, lots of examples explained including extremophiles

Food security - population growth and sustainability issues

Biodiversity and ecological surveying - using quadrats and transects

Biodiversity, land management, waste management, maintaining ecosystems - conservation

See also from GCSE chemistry and physics revision notes on pollution and climate change

Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

Pollution, Accidents and Economic Aspects of the Petrochemical Industry

Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

Fossil fuel air pollution - effects of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides

and section in The absorption and emission of radiation by materials - including global warming


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Indexes to help links for all GCSE and IGCSE science courses


Revision help notes for the Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus exam paper

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Helpful revision notes for Edexcel International GCSE Biology (9-1) IGCSE Biology 4BI1 specification - syllabus

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