Brown's Chemistry AQA GCSE Science-CHEMISTRY 3 Revision Notes
Chemistry Unit C3.1 The periodic table
CHEMISTRY UNIT 3 Chemistry 3
for GCSE Triple Award Science or GCSE Chemistry
REVISION NOTES GUIDE SUMMARY: What do you need to know
for the examinations? What do you need to able to do in the exams? In AQA GCSE Science
A examinations HT means for higher tier students only.
Sorry, but I don't have much time to answer questions, but if you see any
apparent errors or wish to comment, please
email me. All my notes, learning
objectives, comments for exam revision are based on the official AQA GCSE Science A Key Stage 4
Throughout this unit you will be
expected to write word equations for reactions specified.
Higher tier (HT)
candidates will also be expected to write and balance symbol
equations for reactions specified throughout the unit.
AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY
Unit C3.1 The periodic table
The modern periodic table has
been developed from work begun by Newlands and Mendeleev.
There are trends in chemical
properties within the periodic table linked to how easily the element gains
or loses electrons.
You should use
your skills, knowledge and understanding to:
evaluate the work of
Newlands and Mendeleev in terms of their contributions to the development of
the modern periodic table
explain why scientists regarded a periodic table
of the elements first as a curiosity, then as a useful tool and finally as
an important summary of the structure of atoms.
Knowledge of the history of the periodic table is limited
to that specified in the subject content.
You may consider other models, but knowledge
is limited to the work of Newlands and Mendeleev.
Examination questions may give information about
other models so that comparisons can be made.
Periodic Table Notes -
AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit
C3.1.1 The early periodic table
a) Know that Newlands, and then Mendeleev, attempted to classify
the elements by arranging them in order of their
The list can be arranged in a table
so that elements with similar properties are in
columns, known as groups.
The table is called a
periodic table because similar properties occur
at regular intervals.
b) Know and understand that the early periodic tables were incomplete and
some elements were placed in inappropriate groups
if the strict order of atomic weights was followed.
AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit
C3.1.2 The modern periodic table
a) Know that when electrons, protons and neutrons were
discovered early in the 20th century, the periodic
table was then arranged in order of atomic (proton)
b) The modern periodic table can be seen as an
arrangement of the elements in terms of their
Know and understand that elements in the same
group have the same number of electrons in
their highest occupied energy level (outer shell).
The periodic table that will be used in the examinations
is on the Data Sheet, with main groups numbered from
1 to 7 and the noble gases as Group 0.
You are not expected to know detailed
electronic configurations for elements beyond calcium,
but should understand that the number of electrons in
the highest occupied energy level (outer shell) for
elements in the main groups is equal to the group
number (except in Group 0 below helium, there are 8 electrons in the outer
shell) eg. eg 1 for the Group I Alkali Metals or 7 for the Group VII
AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit
C3.1.3 Trends within the periodic table
a) Know that the elements in Group 1 of the periodic table
as the alkali metals and know:
They are metals with low density (the first three elements
in the group are less dense than water).
They react with non-metals to form ionic compounds
in which the metal ion carries a charge of +1.
Their compounds are usually white solids that dissolve
in water to form colourless solutions.
They react with water, releasing hydrogen.
They form white solid hydroxides that dissolve in water to give
b) Know that in Group 1, the further down the group an element is:
c) Know that compared with the elements in Group 1, transition
d) Know that many transition elements have ions with different
charges, form coloured compounds and are useful
e) Know that the elements in Group 7 of the periodic table (known
as the halogens) react with metals to form ionic
compounds in which the halide ion carries a
charge of –1.
f) Know that in Group 7, the further down the group an element is:
g) Know and understand that a more reactive halogen can displace a less
reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt.
h) HT only: Know and
understand that the trends in reactivity within groups in the
periodic table can be explained because the
higher the energy level of the outer electrons:
the more easily electrons are lost
eg when Group 1 alkali metals react, more reactive down the group
the less easily electrons are gained
eg Group 7 halogens become less reactive down the group
Revise demonstrations you
saw or practical work you did to develop skills and understanding which may
demonstration of the combustion of reactions of sodium and potassium
demonstration of the reactions of sodium and potassium with chlorine
demonstration of the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water
demonstration of the reactions of the halogens with iron wool
investigating the displacement of halogens from solutions of their salts by
more reactive halogens
heating transition metals in air (any of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu) to compare
reactivity and melting points with Group 1
demonstration of the reaction of iron wool with steam
observation of as many salts of transition metals as possible (bottles with
formulae clearly displayed)
demonstrations of transition metals and their salts as catalysts
investigation of the catalysis of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by different
transition metals and their
AQA GCSE Separate Science CHEMISTRY
for triple award
When revising, these pages
provide you with a summary of what you need to know and be able to do.
BUT remember, your primary
source of revision are your class notes, investigations and AQA GCSE
Revision notes and quizzes to
help you revise
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Chemistry Unit 3 C3 Unit Index
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