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Doc Brown's Chemistry AQA GCSE Science-CHEMISTRY 1 Revision Notes

Chemistry Unit C1.4 Crude oil and fuels Study Notes

CHEMISTRY UNIT 1 Chemistry 1 for GCSE Science or GCSE Chemistry

REVISION NOTES GUIDE SUMMARY: What do you need to know for the examinations? What do you need to able to do in the exams? In AQA GCSE Science A examinations HT means for higher tier students only. Sorry, but I don't have much time to answer questions, but if you see any apparent errors or wish to comment, please email me. All my notes, learning objectives, comments for exam revision are based on the official AQA GCSE Science A Key Stage 4 syllabus specification.

  • Throughout this unit you will be expected to write word equations for reactions specified.

  • Higher tier (HT) candidates will also be expected to write and balance symbol equations for reactions specified throughout the unit.

AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit C1.4 Crude oil and fuels

  • Know that crude oil is derived from an ancient biomass found in rocks.

  • Know that many useful materials can be produced from crude oil.

  • Know that crude oil can be fractionally distilled and some of the fractions can be used as fuels.

  • Know that biofuels are produced from plant material and there are advantages and disadvantages to their use as fuels.

  • Know that fuels can come from renewable or non-renewable resources.

    • You should be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to:

      • evaluate the impact on the environment of burning hydrocarbon fuels,

        • your knowledge and understanding of the products of burning hydrocarbon fuels and the effects of these products should be limited to those named in the subject content for this section.

      • consider and evaluate the social, economic and environmental impacts of the uses of fuels,

        • You may be given information and data about other fuels and their products of combustion for comparison and evaluation in the examinations.

      • evaluate developments in the production and uses of better fuels, for example ethanol and hydrogen.

        • You should know and understand the benefits and disadvantages of ethanol and hydrogen as fuels in terms of:

          • use of renewable resources,

          • storage and use of the fuels,

          • their products of combustion.

      • evaluate the benefits, drawbacks and risks of using plant materials to produce fuels.

AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit C1.4.1 Crude oil

  • a) Know that crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds.

  • b) Know that a mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together.

  • c) Know and understand that most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons).

    • Know that most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

    • You are not expected to know the names of specific alkanes other than methane, ethane and propane.

    • alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b  alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b  alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b

    • Notes on ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons

AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons

  • a) Know that alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms:

    • molecular formula stylealkanes structure and naming (c) doc b and

    • displayed formula style alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b

    • You should know that in displayed structures represents a covalent bond.

    • You should be able to recognise alkanes from their formulae in any of the forms but do not need to know the names of individual alkanes other than methane, ethane, propane and butane.

    • Notes on ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons

  • doc b oil notesb) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures.

    • This process is fractional distillation.

    • You should know and understand the main processes in continuous fractional distillation in a fractionating column.

      • Knowledge of the names of specific fractions or fuels is not required.

  • c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules.

    • These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.

    • Your expected knowledge of trends in properties of hydrocarbons is limited to:

      • boiling points - the bigger the molecule the higher it is,

      • viscosity - increases with size of molecule - as carbon chain gets longer,

      • flammability - decreases as molecule gets bigger.

  • Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

AQA GCSE Science CHEMISTRY Unit C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon fuels

  • a) Know that most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur.

    • Know that the gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.

    • ALKANES - section on combustion - products and equations

    • Know that solid particles (particulates) may also be released.

    • You should be able to relate products of combustion to the elements present in compounds in the fuel and to the extent of combustion (whether complete or partial).

    • No details of how the oxides of nitrogen are formed are required, other than the fact that they are formed at high temperatures.

    • Know that solid particles may contain soot (carbon) and unburnt fuels.

    • Pollution & Oil Industry & Fuel evaluation

  • b) Know that the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy.

    • Know that during combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised.

  • c) Know and understand that sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming.

    • You are not required to know details of any other causes of acid rain or global warming.

  • d) Know that sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles.

    • Know that sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations.

      • Knowledge of the methods of removing sulfur is not required.

  • e) Know that biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material.

    • There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use.

    • Knowledge of the methods of biofuel production is not required but candidates may be given information from which a range of questions may be asked.

    • Ethanol - section on biofuels eg bioethanol, biodiesel

  • Your practical work to develop your skills and understanding may have include the following (which should also be revised, helps in understanding 'how science works' and context examination questions):

    • demonstration of fractional distillation of crude oil using,

    • designing an investigation on viscosity, ease of ignition or sootiness of flame of oils or fuels,

    • comparing the energy content of different fuels, for example by heating a fixed volume of water,

    • demonstration of the production of solid particles by incomplete combustion using a Bunsen burner yellow flame or a candle flame to heat a boiling tube of cold water,

    • collecting and testing the products of combustion of candle wax and methane,

    • demonstration of burning sulfur or coal in oxygen and then testing the pH of the gas produced,

    • designing an investigation on growing cress from seeds in various concentrations of sodium metabisulfite (metabisulphite) solution to show how acid rain affects plants.

  • Useful links to revision notes and quizzes


GCSE Science-Chemistry courses AQA GCSE Science A CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL GCSE Science CHEMISTRY

OCR GCSE 21st Century Science A CHEMISTRY  *  OCR GCSE Gateway Science B CHEMISTRY

WJEC GCSE Science-CHEMISTRY  *  Northern Ireland CCEA GCSE Science-CHEMISTRY

AQA GCSE Sciences - Revision Notes


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