Edexcel GCSE SCIENCES - chemistry 1 paper

ALL MY GCSE CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES

BEWARE - this page is for Y10 2016-2017 onwards only!

Edexcel Level 1/ 2 GCSE (9 - 1) Chemistry (1CH0) Paper 1 and Edexcel GCSE Combined Science (1SC0) Paper 3 Chemistry 1

Edexcel (9-1) GCSE CHEMISTRY Topics 1-5

'Old' Edexcel GCSE science courses for Y11 finishing Y11 2016-2017

INDEX for all links

These topic revision summaries below for the NEW GCSE sciences are all unofficial but based on the NEW 2016 official syllabus-specifications for Y10 students from September 2016 onwards

(HT only) means higher tier only (NOT FT) and (Edexcel GCSE chemistry only) means for the separate science, NOT for Combined Science chemistry

Links to specific GCSE chemistry notes about the topic in question have been added, and from these pages, you may find other links to more useful material linked to the topic.


Revision summaries for Paper 1 Edexcel GCSE Chemistry and Combined Science Paper 3 Chemistry 1 (this page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 – Key concepts in chemistry  (Topic 1 Combined Science Chemistry 1)

SUMMARY Topic 2 – States of matter and mixtures   (Topic 2 Combined Science Chemistry 1)

SUMMARY Topic 3 – Chemical changes  (Topic 3 Combined Science Chemistry 1)

SUMMARY Topic 4 – Extracting metals and equilibria   (Topic 4 Combined Science Chemistry 1)

SUMMARY Topic 5 – Separate chemistry 1  (NOT Combined Science Chemistry 1) 


Revision summaries for Paper 2 Edexcel GCSE Chemistry & Combined Science Paper 4 Chemistry 2 (separate page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 – Key concepts in chemistry (Topic 1 Combined Science Chemistry 2)

SUMMARY Topic 6 – Groups in the periodic table  (Topic 12 Combined Science Chemistry 2) 

SUMMARY Topic 7 – Rates of reaction and energy changes  (Topic 13 Combined Science Chemistry 2)

SUMMARY Topic 8 – Fuels and Earth Science  (Topic 14 Combined Science Chemistry 2) 

SUMMARY Topic 9 – Separate chemistry 2  (NOT Combined Science Chemistry 2) 


TOPICS for Paper 1 Edexcel GCSE Chemistry and Combined Science Paper 3 Chemistry 1

Note: a C after the learning objective indicates it is for Edexcel GCSE Chemistry ONLY, NOT for Combined Science

Topics common to all chemistry papers

 Formulae, equations and hazards

You should be able to ...

0.1 Be able to recall the formulae of elements, simple compounds and ions.

0.2 Write word equations.

0.3 Write balanced chemical equations, including the use of the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq).

0.4 (HT only) Write balanced ionic equations.

0.5 Be able to describe the use of hazard symbols on containers

(a) to indicate the dangers associated with the contents

(b) to inform people about safe-working precautions with these substances in the laboratory

0.6 Be able to evaluate the risks in a practical procedure and suggest suitable precautions for a range of practicals including those mentioned in the specification.

How to write word & symbol equations, work out formula and name compounds

Hazard warning symbols

Ideas on experiment design and risk assessment


Topic 1 Key concepts in chemistry (common to ALL chemistry papers)

Atomic structure

You should be able to ...

1.1 Be able to describe how the Dalton model of an atom has changed because of the discovery of subatomic particles

1.2 Be able to describe the structure of an atom as a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in shells

1.3 Be able to recall the relative electric charge and relative mass of a proton, a neutron and an electron

1.4 Be able to explain why atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

1.5 Be able to describe the nucleus of an atom as very small compared to the overall size of the atom

1.6 Be able to recall that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus

1.7 Be able to recall the meaning of the term mass number of an atom

1.8 Be able to describe atoms of a given element as having the same number of protons in the nucleus and that this number is unique to that element

1.9 Be able to describe isotopes as different atoms of the same element containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei

1.10 Be able to calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms given the atomic number and mass number

1.11 Be able to explain how the existence of isotopes results in relative atomic masses of some elements not being whole numbers

1.12 (HT only) Be able to calculate the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative masses and abundances of its isotopes

Atomic Structure

Multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & electronic structure of atoms

Atomic Structure crossword puzzle * Answers

Gap-fill worksheet on Atomic Structure

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 1. fundamental particles

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 2. periodic table

The Periodic Table

1.13 Be able to describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements, known at that time, in a periodic table by using properties of these elements and their compounds

1.14 Be able to describe how Mendeleev used his table to predict the existence and properties of some elements not then discovered

1.15 Be able to explain that Mendeleev thought he had arranged elements in order of increasing relative atomic mass but this was not always true because of the relative abundance of isotopes of some pairs of elements in the periodic table

1.16 Be able to explain the meaning of atomic number of an element in terms of position in the periodic table and number of protons in the nucleus

1.17 Be able to describe that in the periodic table

(a) elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number in rows called periods

(b) elements with similar properties are placed in the same vertical columns called groups

1.18 Identify elements as metals or non-metals according to their position in the periodic table and explaining this division in terms of the atomic structures of the elements

1.19 Be able to predict the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements in the periodic table as diagrams and in the form, for example, 2.5.1

1.20 Be able to explain how the electronic configuration of an element is related to its position in the periodic table

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 2. periodic table

Periodic Table Notes - an overview

Multiple choice quiz on the basics of the Periodic Table

Multiple choice quiz on the basics of the Periodic Table

Task sheet worksheet on Periodic Table history * (answers)

Basic Periodic Table Task sheet worksheet * (answers)

Gap-fill worksheet on the Periodic Table

Ionic Bonding

1.21 Be able to explain how ionic bonds are formed by the transfer of electrons between atoms to produce cations and anions, including the use of dot and cross diagrams

1.22 Be able to recall that an ion is an atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge

1.23 Be able to calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in simple ions given the atomic number and mass number

1.24 Be able to explain the formation of ions in ionic compounds from their atoms, limited to compounds of elements in groups 1, 2, 6 and 7

1.25 Be able to explain the use of the endings –ide and –ate in the names of compounds

1.26 Be able to deduce the formulae of ionic compounds (including oxides, hydroxides, halides, nitrates, carbonates and sulfates) given the formulae of the constituent ions

1.27 Be able to explain the structure of an ionic compound as

(a) lattice structure a consisting of a regular arrangement of ions

(b) held together by strong electrostatic forces (ionic bonds) between oppositely-charged ions

Be able to represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Ionic bonding and ionic compounds and their properties

Covalent Bonding

1.28 Be able to explain how a covalent bond is formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

1.29 Be able to recall that covalent bonding results in the formation of molecules

1.30 Be able to recall the typical size (order of magnitude) of atoms and small molecules

Be able to relate size and scale of atoms to objects in the physical world.

Be able to estimate size and scale of atoms

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Covalent bonding and small molecules and their properties

Types of substances

1.31 Be able to explain the formation of simple molecular, covalent substances, using dot and cross diagrams, including:

(a) hydrogen, (b) hydrogen chloride, (c) water, (d) methane, (e) oxygen, (f) carbon dioxide

1.32 Be able to explain why elements and compounds can be classified as:

(a) ionic

(b) simple molecular (covalent)

(c) giant covalent

(d) metallic

and how the structure and bonding of these types of substances results in different physical properties, including relative melting point and boiling point, relative solubility in water and ability to conduct electricity (as solids and in solution)

1.33 Be able to explain the properties of ionic compounds limited to:

(a) high melting points and boiling points, in terms of forces between ions

(b) whether or not they conduct electricity as solids, when molten and in aqueous solution

1.34 Be able to explain the properties of typical covalent, simple molecular compounds limited to:

(a) low melting points and boiling points, in terms of forces between molecules (intermolecular forces)

(b) poor conduction of electricity

1.35 Be able to recall that graphite and diamond are different forms of carbon and that they are examples of giant covalent substances

1.36 Be able to describe the structures of graphite and diamond

1.37 Be able to explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why graphite is used to make electrodes and as a lubricant, whereas diamond is used in cutting tools

1.38 Be able to explain the properties of fullerenes including C60 and graphene in terms of their structures and bonding

1.39 Be able to describe, using poly(ethene) as the example, that simple polymers consist of large molecules containing chains of carbon atoms

1.40 Be able to explain the properties of metals, including malleability and the ability to conduct electricity

1.41 Be able to describe the limitations of particular representations and models to include dot and cross, ball and stick models and two- and three-dimensional representations

1.42 Be able to describe most metals as shiny solids which have high melting points, high density and are good conductors of electricity whereas most non-metals have low boiling points and are poor conductors

Be able to represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures, e.g. allotropes of carbon.

Be able to translate information between diagrammatic and numerical forms

Ionic bonding and ionic compounds and their properties

Covalent bonding and small molecules and their properties

Covalent bonding and giant structures and their properties and uses

Metallic bonding, properties and uses of metals

Polymer structure

Quiz on the Structure, Properties and Chemical Bonding of Materials

Periodic Table Notes -  metals & non-metals section

Calculations involving masses

1.43 Be able to calculate relative formula mass given relative atomic masses

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

Type in answer quiz on relative formula mass

Multiple Choice quiz on relative formula mass

1.44 Be able to calculate the formulae of simple compounds from reacting masses and understand that these are empirical formulae

1.45 Be able to deduce:

(a) the empirical formula of a compound from the formula of its molecule

(b) the molecular formula of a compound from its empirical formula and its relative molecular mass

1.46 Be able to describe an experiment to determine the empirical formula of a simple compound such as magnesium oxide.

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

1.47 Be able to explain the law of conservation of mass applied to:

(a) a closed system including a precipitation reaction in a closed flask

(b) a non-enclosed system including a reaction in an open flask that takes in or gives out a gas

Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

Type in answer quiz on the law of conservation of mass

Multiple choice quiz on the law of conservation of mass

1.48 Be able to calculate masses of reactants and products from balanced equations, given the mass of one substance

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles)

1.49 Be able to calculate the concentration of solutions in g dm–3

1.50 (HT only) Be able to recall that one mole of particles of a substance is defined as

(a)  the Avogadro constant number of particles (6 x 1023 atoms, molecules, formulae, ions) of that substance

(b) a mass of ‘relative particle mass’ g

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

1.51 (HT only) Be able to calculate the number of:

(a) moles of particles of a substance in a given mass of that substance and vice versa

(b) particles of a substance in a given number of moles of that substance and vice versa

(c) particles of a substance in a given mass of that substance and vice versa

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

1.52(HT only) Be able to explain why, in a reaction, the mass of product formed is controlled by the mass of the reactant which is not in excess.

How much of a reactant is needed? calculation of quantities required, limiting quantities

1.53 (HT only) Be able to deduce the stoichiometry of a reaction from the masses of the reactants and products

Suggested practicals

Investigating the size of an oil molecule.

Investigating the properties of a metal, such as electrical conductivity.

Investigating the different types of bonding: metallic, covalent and ionic.

Investigating the typical properties of simple and giant covalent compounds and ionic compounds.

Classifying different types of elements and compounds by investigating their melting points and boiling points, solubility in water and electrical conductivity (as solids and in solution), including sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hexane, liquid paraffin, silicon(IV) oxide, copper sulfate, and sucrose (sugar).

Determining the empirical formula of a simple compound.

Investigating mass changes before and after reactions.

Determining the formula of a hydrated salt such as copper sulfate by heating to drive off water of crystallisation.


The Topics 2-5 for Chemistry Paper 1 ONLY

Topic 2 – States of matter

You should be able to ...

2.1 Be able to describe the arrangement, movement and the relative energy of particles in each of the three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas

2.2 Be able to recall the names used for the interconversions between the three states of matter, recognising that these are physical changes: contrasted with chemical reactions that result in chemical changes 

2.3 Be able to explain the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these interconversions

2.4 Be able to predict the physical state of a substance under specified conditions, given suitable data

States of Matter - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid properties-behaviour, state changes

Multiple choice quiz on States of Matter (gases, liquids & solids) and State Changes

Methods of separating and purifying substances

You should be able to ....

2.5 Explain the difference between the use of ‘pure’ in chemistry compared with its everyday use and the differences in chemistry between a pure substance and a mixture.

Definitions in Chemistry eg atom, molecule, formula, element, compound, mixture etc.

2.6 Interpret melting point data to distinguish between pure substances which have a sharp melting point and mixtures which melt over a range of temperatures.

2.7 Be able to explain the experimental techniques for separation of mixtures by:

(a) simple distillation

(b) fractional distillation

(c) filtration

(d) crystallisation

(e) paper chromatography

Distillation - Simple and Fractional Distillation 

Paper & thin layer chromatography (tlc)

Filtration, evaporation, crystallisation, drying and decantation

2.8 Be able to describe an appropriate experimental technique to separate a mixture, knowing the properties of the components of the mixture

2.9 Be able to describe paper chromatography as the separation of mixtures of soluble substances by running a solvent (mobile phase) through the mixture on the paper (the paper contains the stationary phase), which causes the substances to move at different rates over the paper

Paper & thin layer chromatography (tlc)

2.10 Interpret a paper chromatogram:

(a) to distinguish between pure and impure substances

(b) to identify substances by comparison with known substances

(c) to identify substances by calculation and use of Rf values

Paper & thin layer chromatography (tlc)

2.11 Core Practical: Investigate the composition of inks using simple distillation and paper chromatography

2.12 Be able to describe how:

(a) waste and ground water can be made potable, including the need for sedimentation, filtration and chlorination

(b) sea water can be made potable by using distillation

(c) water used in analysis must not contain any dissolved salts

Water cycle, potable water, water treatment, pollution, tests for ions in water


Topic 3 Chemical change

Acids

You should be able to ....

3.1 Be able to recall that acids in solution are sources of hydrogen ions and alkalis in solution are sources of hydroxide ions

3.2 Be able to recall that a neutral solution has a pH of 7 and that acidic solutions have lower pH values and alkaline solutions higher pH values

3.3 Be able to recall the effect of acids and alkalis on indicators, including litmus, methyl orange and phenolphthalein

3.4 (HT only) Be able to recall that the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions in an acidic solution, the lower the pH; and the higher the concentration of hydroxide ions in an alkaline solution, the higher the pH

3.5 (HT only) Be able to recall that as hydrogen ion concentration in a solution increases by a factor of 10, the pH of the solution decreases by 1

3.6 Investigate the change in pH on adding powdered calcium hydroxide/calcium oxide to a fixed volume of dilute hydrochloric acid

3.7 (HT only) Be able to explain the terms dilute and concentrated, with respect to amount of substances in solution

3.8 (HT only) Be able to explain the terms weak and strong acids, with respect to the degree of dissociation into ions

3.9 Be able to recall that a base is any substance that reacts with an acid to form salt and water only

3.10 Be able to recall that alkalis are soluble bases

3.11 Be able to explain the general reactions of aqueous solutions of acids with:

(a) metals

(b) metal oxides

(c) metal hydroxides

(d) metal carbonates

.... to produce salts

3.12 Be able to describe the chemical test for: (a) hydrogen,   (b) carbon dioxide (using limewater)

3.13 Be able to describe a neutralisation reaction as a reaction between an acid and a base

3.14 Be able to explain an acid-alkali neutralisation as a reaction in which hydrogen ions (H+) from the acid react with hydroxide ions (OH) from the alkali

3.15 Be able to explain why, if soluble salts are prepared from an acid and an insoluble reactant:

(a) excess of the reactant is added

(b) the excess reactant is removed

(c) the solution remaining is only salt and water

3.16 Be able to explain why, if soluble salts are prepared from an acid and a soluble reactant:

(a) titration must be used

(b) the acid and the soluble reactant are then mixed in the correct proportions

(c) the solution remaining, after reaction, is only salt and water

3.17 Core Practical: Investigate the preparation of pure, dry hydrated copper sulfate crystals starting from copper oxide including the use of a water bath

3.18 Be able to describe how to carry out an acid-alkali titration, using burette, pipette and a suitable indicator, to prepare a pure, dry salt

3.19 Be able to recall the general rules which describe the solubility of common types of substances in water:

(a) all common sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble

(b) all nitrates are soluble

(c) common chlorides are soluble except those of silver and lead

(d) common sulfates are soluble except those of lead, barium and calcium

(e) common carbonates and hydroxides are insoluble except those of sodium, potassium and ammonium

3.20 Be able to predict, using solubility rules, whether or not a precipitate will be formed when named solutions are mixed together, naming the precipitate if any

3.21 Be able to describe the method used to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt

Practicals, hopefully you have done

Carry out simple neutralisation reactions of acids, using metal oxides, hydroxides and carbonates.

Carry out tests for hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

Prepare an insoluble salt by precipitation.

Everyday examples of acid-alkali chemistry

pH scale, indicator colours, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

Examples of acid, neutral or alkaline solutions

Reactions of acids with metals/oxides/hydroxides/carbonates and neutralisation reactions

Reactions of bases-alkalis like sodium hydroxide

Making a soluble salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali)

Making a soluble salt by from an acid with a metal or insoluble base – oxide, hydroxide or carbonate

Preparing an insoluble salt by mixing solutions of two soluble compounds

Making a salt by directly combining its constituent elements

Important formulae, salt solubility and water of crystallisation

Multiple choice quiz on pH, Indicators, Acids, Bases, Neutralisation and Salts

Structured question worksheet on Acid Reaction word equations and symbol equation question

Word equation answers and symbol equation answers

Word-fill worksheet on Acids, Bases, Neutralisation and Salts

Matching pair quiz on Acids, Bases, Salts and pH

Electrolytic processes

You should be able to ....

3.22 Be able to recall that electrolytes are ionic compounds in the molten state or dissolved in water

3.23 Be able to describe electrolysis as a process in which electrical energy, from a direct current supply, decomposes electrolytes

3.24 Be able to explain the movement of ions during electrolysis, in which:

(a) positively charged cations migrate to the negatively charged cathode

(b) negatively charged anions migrate to the positively charged anode

3.25 Be able to explain the formation of the products in the electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of some electrolytes, including:

(a) copper chloride solution

(b) sodium chloride solution

(c) sodium sulfate solution

(d) water acidified with sulfuric acid

(e) molten lead bromide (demonstration)

3.26 Be able to predict the products of electrolysis of other binary, ionic compounds in the molten state

3.27 (Ht only) Write half equations for reactions occurring at the anode and cathode in electrolysis

3.28 (HT only) Be able to explain oxidation and reduction in terms of loss or gain of electrons

3.29 (HT only) Be able to recall that reduction occurs at the cathode and that oxidation occurs at the anode in electrolysis reactions

3.30 Be able to explain formation of the products in the electrolysis of copper sulfate solution, using copper electrodes, and how this electrolysis can be used to purify copper

3..31 Investigating the change in mass of the anode and of the cathode, when copper sulfate solution is electrolysed between copper electrodes.

Suggested practicals

Investigate the electrolysis of

(a) copper chloride solution

(b) sodium chloride solution

(c) sodium sulfate solution

(d) water acidified with sulfuric acid

(e) molten lead bromide (demonstration)

Introduction to electrolysis - electrolytes, non-electrolytes, electrode equations

Electrolysis of acidified water (dilute sulfuric acid) and some sulfate salts and alkalis

Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine)

Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution and electroplating

Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten ionic compounds)

Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution

Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid

Summary of electrode half-equations and products


Topic 4 Extracting metals and equilibria

Obtaining and using metals

You should be able to ....

4.1 Be able to deduce the relative reactivity of some metals, by their reactions with water, acids and salt solutions

4.2 (HT only) Be able to explain displacement reactions as redox reactions, in terms of gain or loss of electrons

4.3 Be able to explain the reactivity series of metals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, (carbon), zinc, iron, (hydrogen), copper, silver, gold) in terms of the reactivity of the metals with water and dilute acids and that these reactions show the relative tendency of metal atoms to form cations

The Reactivity Series of Metals

Metal Reactivity Series Experiments-Observations

4.4 Be able to recall that:

(a) most metals are extracted from ores found in the Earth’s crust

(b) unreactive metals are found in the Earth’s crust as the uncombined elements

4.5 Be able to explain oxidation as the gain of oxygen and reduction as the loss of oxygen

4.6 Be able to recall that the extraction of metals involves reduction of ores

Introduction to Metal Extraction

4.7 Be able to explain why the method used to extract a metal from its ore is related to its position in the reactivity series and the cost of the extraction process, illustrated by

(a) heating with carbon (including iron)

(b) electrolysis (including aluminium)

(knowledge of the blast furnace is not required)

Extraction of Iron

Extraction of Aluminium

4.8 (HT) Be able to evaluate alternative biological methods of metal extraction (bacterial and phytoextraction)

Copper extraction by phytomining or bioleaching

4.9 Be able to explain how a metal’s relative resistance to oxidation is related to its position in the reactivity series

4.10 Be able to evaluate the advantages of recycling metals, including economic implications and how recycling can preserve both the environment and the supply of valuable raw materials

Economic & environmental issues on mineral extraction & reasons for recycling and methods

4.11 Be able to describe that a life time assessment for a product involves consideration of the effect on the environment of obtaining the raw materials, manufacturing the product, using the product and disposing of the product when it is no longer useful

4.12 Be able to evaluate data from a life cycle assessment of a product

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industry Economics & Sustainability, Life Cycle Assessment, Recycling

Suggested practicals

Investigate methods for extracting metals from their ores

Investigate simple oxidation and reduction reactions, such as burning elements in oxygen or competition reactions between metals and metal oxides

Reversible reactions and equilibria (c) doc b

You should be able to ....

4.13 Be able to recall that chemical reactions are reversible and the use of the symbol (c) doc b in equations  and that the direction of some reversible reactions can be altered by changing the reaction conditions

4.14 Be able to explain what is meant by dynamic equilibrium

Reversible Reactions

Reversible reactions and equilibrium

4.15 Be able to describe the formation of ammonia as a reversible reaction between nitrogen (extracted from the air) and hydrogen (obtained from natural gas) and that it can reach a dynamic equilibrium

4.16 Recall the conditions for the Haber process as: (a) temperature 450 °C, (b) pressure 200 atmospheres, (c) iron catalyst

4.17 (HT only) Be able to predict how the position of a dynamic equilibrium is affected by changes in:

(a) temperature

(b) pressure

(c) concentration

Reversible reactions and equilibrium

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia - nitrogen fixation

Suggested practicals

Investigate simple reversible reactions, such as the decomposition of ammonium chloride.


Topic 5 Separate Chemistry 1 (Edexcel GCSE Chemistry only, NOT combined science)

Transition metals, alloys and corrosion

You should be able to ....

5.1C Be able to recall that most metals are transition metals and that their typical properties include:

(a) high melting point

(b) high density

(c) the formation of coloured compounds

(d) catalytic activity of the metals and their compounds

... as exemplified by iron

Transition Metals eg iron and copper - their physical/chemical properties & uses (also mention of aluminium)

Multiple choice quiz on the Transition Metals and their Compounds

Word-fill worksheet on the Transition Metals

5.2C Be able to recall that the oxidation of metals results in corrosion

5.3C Be able to explain how rusting of iron can be prevented by:

(a) exclusion of oxygen

(b) exclusion of water

(c) sacrificial protection

The corrosion of metals and the prevention of iron rusting

5.4C Be able to explain how electroplating can be used to improve the appearance and/or the resistance to corrosion of metal objects

5.5C Be able to explain, using models, why converting pure metals into alloys often increases the strength of the product

5.6C Be able to explain why iron is alloyed with other metals to produce alloy steels

5.7C Be able to explain how the uses of metals are related to their properties (and vice versa), including aluminium, copper and gold and their alloys including magnalium and brass

Transition Metals eg iron and copper - their physical properties & uses (also mention of aluminium)

How can metals be made more useful? (alloys of Al, Fe, steel etc.)

The importance of titanium

Practicals you hopefully encountered

Investigate the rusting of iron.

Make an alloy or investigate the properties of alloys.

Carry out an activity to show that transition metal salts have a variety of colours.

Electroplate a metal object


Quantitative analysis (Edexcel GCSE Chemistry only, NOT combined science)

You should be able to ....

5.8C (HT only) Be able to calculate the concentration of solutions in mol dm–3 and

convert concentration in g dm–3 into mol dm–3 and vice versa

5.9C Carry out an accurate acid-alkali titration, using burette, pipette and a suitable indicator

5.10C (HT only) Carry out simple calculations using the results of titrations to calculate an unknown concentration of a solution or an unknown volume of solution required

How to do volumetric titration calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Titration type in answer QUIZ

Titration multiple choice QUIZ

5.11C Be able to calculate the percentage yield of a reaction from the actual yield and the theoretical yield

5.12C Be able to describe that the actual yield of a reaction is usually less than the theoretical yield and that the causes of this include:

(a) incomplete reactions

(b) practical losses during the experiment

(c) competing, unwanted reactions (side reactions)

% reaction yield and theoretical yield calculations

5.13C Be able to recall the atom economy of a reaction forming a desired product.

Atom economy calculations

5.14C Be able to understand and calculate the atom economy of a reaction forming a desired product.

Atom economy calculations

5.15C Explain why a particular reaction pathway is chosen to produce a specified product, given appropriate data such as atom economy, yield, rate, equilibrium position and usefulness of by-products

The Principles & Practice of Chemical Production - Synthesising Molecules

5.16C Be able to describe the molar volume, of any gas at room temperature and pressure, as the volume occupied by one mole of molecules of any gas at room temperature and pressure (The molar volume will be provided as 24 dm3 or 24000 cm3 in calculations where it is required)

5.17C Be able to use the molar volume and balanced equations in calculations involving the masses of solids and volumes of gases

5.18C Be able to use Avogadro’s law to calculate volumes of gases involved in a gaseous reaction, given the relevant equation

Suggested practicals you may have done

Prepare a substance and calculate the percentage yield, given the theoretical yield.

Determine the volume of one mole of hydrogen gas by using the reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid.

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

Molar gas volume type in answer QUIZ

Molar gas volume multiple choice QUIZ

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

Reacting volumes type in answer QUIZ

Reacting volumes multiple choice QUIZ

Dynamic equilibria, calculations involving volumes of gases

You should be able to ....

5.19C Be able to describe the Haber process as a reversible reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia

5.20C (HT only) Be able to predict how the rate of attainment of equilibrium is affected by:

(a) changes in temperature

(b) changes in pressure

(c) changes in concentration

(d) use of a catalyst

Reversible reactions and equilibrium

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia - nitrogen fixation

5.21C (HT only) Be able to explain how, in industrial reactions, including the Haber process, conditions used are related to:

(a) the availability and cost of raw materials and energy supplies

(b) the control of temperature, pressure and catalyst used produce an acceptable yield in an acceptable time

5.22C Be able to recall that fertilisers may contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds to promote plant growth

5.23C Be able to describe how ammonia reacts with nitric acid to produce a salt that is used as a fertiliser

5.24C Be able to describe and compare:

(a) the laboratory preparation of ammonium sulfate from ammonia solution and dilute sulfuric acid on a small scale

(b) the industrial production of ammonium sulfate, used as a fertiliser, in which several stages are required to produce ammonia and sulfuric acid from their raw materials and the production is carried out on a much larger scale

(details of the industrial production of sulfuric acid are not required)

Practical: Preparing a sample of ammonium sulfate from ammonia solution and dilute sulfuric acid.

Manufacture and uses of fertilisers, preparation of ammonium salts, NPK fertilisers-environmental problems

Chemical cells and fuel cells

You should be able to ....

5.25C Be able to recall that a chemical cell produces a voltage until one of the reactants is used up

5.26C Be able to recall that in a hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell hydrogen and oxygen are used to produce a voltage and water is the only product

5.27C Be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cells for given uses.

Simple cells (batteries)

Fuel Cells e.g. the hydrogen - oxygen fuel cell


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