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Doc Brown's Chemistry ADVANCED LEVEL REVISION

A Level Chemistry Revision-Study Notes

For Physical-Theoretical Chemistry

Year 13 A2 Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 13 January 2002

ORGANIC NOTES * INORGANIC NOTES * PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL NOTES

Click on the click me! buttons-text below * UK Exam syllabus-specification links * General A Level Revision Questions

UK Exam syllabuses-specifications help links

AQA Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS Level Chemistry and AQA GCE A2 Advanced A Level Chemistry

EDEXCEL GCE Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry & EDEXCEL GCE Advanced A Level A2 Chemistry

OCR GCE Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry (NOT Salters) and OCR GCE A Level A2 Chemistry (NOT Salters)

Salters Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry SALTERS & Salters Advanced A Level A2 Chemistry SALTERS

WJEC Advanced Subsidiary AS GCE Chemistry and WJEC Advanced A2 GCE Chemistry

CCEA Advanced Subsidiary AS GCE Chemistry and CEA-CCEA Advanced A2 GCE Chemistry

Cambridge pre-U GCE chemistry  *  Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) GCE 9701 Chemistry

ADVANCED PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY TOPICS

Revision study notes and for researching information

CALCULATIONS and QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS -  all with worked out answers or feedback for self-assessment

There are lots of accompanying quizzes to go with the exemplar notes on basic chemical calculations listed below.

click me! GCSE and AS basic Calculations sections 1 to 15 indexed (c) doc b examples, notes and short tests *

  1. What is relative atomic mass?, relative isotopic mass and calculating relative atomic mass

  2. Calculating relative formula/molecular mass of a compound or element molecule (this page)

  3. Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

  4. Composition by percentage mass of elements in a compound

  5. Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

  6. Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles) and brief mention of actual percent % yield and theoretical yield, atom economy and formula mass determination

  7. Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

  8. Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

  9. Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

  10. Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

  11. Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

  12. How to do volumetric titration calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

  13. Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

  14. Other calculations e.g. % purity, % percentage & theoretical yield, volumetric titration apparatus, dilution of solutions (and diagrams of apparatus), water of crystallisation, quantity of reactants required, atom economy

  15. Energy transfers in physical/chemical changes, exothermic/endothermic reactions

  16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationships, Boyle's and Charles Laws

  17. Radioactivity & half-life calculations including dating materials

click me! Part 1 Acid-base and other non-redox titration calculation questions

PART 1 Fully worked out Question Answers

click me! Part 2 Acid-base and other non-redox titration calculation questions

PART 2 Fully worked out Question Answers

click me! redox titration calculation questions

FULL ANSWERS and WORKING for REDOX TITRATION QUESTIONS

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksATOMIC STRUCTURE, RADIOACTIVITY, ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS and BONDING

click me! Revision notes on all you need to know on ATOMIC STRUCTURE for advanced level

The Mass Spectrometer and basics of mass spectrometry of elements

click me! Notes on all you will ever need to know about RADIOACTIVITY for advanced level

Radioactivity & Nuclear Reactions Revision Notes Index

The Structure of Atoms - 3 fundamental particles and what is an atom like?

What is Radioactivity? Why does it happen? How three types of atomic-ionising radiation were found

Detection of Radioactivity, measurement and dose units, Ionising Radiation sources - radioactive materials

Alpha, beta & gamma radiation, properties, dangers of radioactive emissions

The uses of radioactive Isotopes emitting alpha, beta or gamma radiation

Half-life of a radioisotope, implications!, uses of decay data , half-life values, radiocarbon dating, dating rocks

What happens to the nucleus in radioactive decay?, nuclear equations, production of radioisotopes

Nuclear fusion reactions and the formation of 'heavy elements'

Nuclear Fission Reactions, nuclear power energy resource

click me! Electronic Structure

Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56), ions and the Periodic Table

Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, evidence of quantum levels, ionisation energy patterns

click me! BONDING Part 1 Introduction to the basics on Ionic, Covalent and Metallic BONDING

Part 2 Ionic Bonding - compounds and properties

Part 3 Covalent Bonding - small simple molecules and properties

Part 4 Covalent Bonding - macromolecules and giant covalent structures

Part 5 Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals

click me! Revision notes on shapes of simple molecules, ions, transition metal complexes AND ....

Shape, bond angles of particular oxide/oxyanion molecules/ions of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur/sulphur and chlorine

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksENERGETICS - THERMOCHEMISTRY and THERMODYNAMICS

click me! Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

PART 1

Part 1a-b ΔH Enthalpy Changes

1.1 Advanced Introduction to enthalpy changes - reaction, formation, combustion

1.2a & 1.2b(i)-(iii) Thermochemistry - Hess's Law and Enthalpy Calculations - reaction, combustion, formation etc.

1.2b(iv) Bond Enthalpy Calculations

1.3a-b Experimental methods for determining enthalpy changes and treatment of results

1.4 Some enthalpy data patterns

1.4a The combustion of linear alkanes and linear aliphatic alcohols

1.4b Some patterns in Bond Enthalpies and Bond Length

1.4c Enthalpies of Neutralisation

1.4d Enthalpies of Hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and evidence of aromatic ring structure in benzene

A set of structured practice Enthalpy Questions

Fully worked out ANSWERS to the ΔH enthalpy Q's above

Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

PART 2

2.1a-c What happens when a salt dissolves in water and why?

2.1d-e Enthalpy cycles involving a salt dissolving

2.2a-c The Born-Haber Cycle

Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes

PART 3

3.1a-g Introduction to Entropy

3.2 Examples of entropy values and comments

3.3a ΔS, Entropy and change of state

3.3b ΔS, Entropy changes and the feasibility of a chemical change

3.4a-d More on ΔG, Free energy changes, feasibility and applications

3.5 Calculating Equilibrium Constants

3.6 Kinetic stability versus thermodynamic feasibility

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksCHEMICAL KINETICS

GCSE notes for the basics of rates of reactions

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of kinetic energies

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksOXIDATION STATES and REDOX REACTIONS

click me! Revision notes on Inorganic and organic REDOX reactions, oxidation state explained etc.  (sub-indexes of sections)

1. Basic redox definitions

2. Introducing oxidation state (with sub–index)

3. Oxidation state rules–guidelines & inorganic examples

4. Naming inorganic compounds

5. Using oxidation states to describe redox changes in inorganic reactions (with sub–index)

6. Constructing full inorganic redox equations from half–equations (with sub–index)

7. Redox titrations

8. Organic synthesis reductions (with summary table)

9. Organic synthesis oxidations (with summary table)

10. Other Organic Redox Reactions (with sub–index)

SPECTROSCOPY

Simple NMR problem solving with % composition and infra-red absorption data

STATES OF MATTER - KINETIC PARTICLE THEORY

States of Matter Part 1 gas-liquid-solid BASIC revision notes

(c) doc bStates of Matter Part 2 More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour (compressibility factors and Van der Waals equation), critical point - critical pressure/temperature

Also Computer simulations of kinetic particle theory - Maxwell Boltzman Distribution of particle speeds/KE'

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksEQUILIBRIA - Theory and Examples of CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

click me! Starter GCSE Notes-reversible reactions-equilibrium

click me! Starter GCSE Notes on Electrochemistry

click me! Simple Introduction to Acid-Base Theory and Weak and Strong Acids

Part 1. (c) doc bEquilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

Part 2. Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

Part 3. Equilibrium and industrial processes

Part 4.1 Partition equilibrium between two phases, partition coefficient, immiscible liquids and solvent extraction

Part 4.2 click me! Solubility product Ksp & common ion effect

Part 4.3 click me! Ion-exchange systems

Part 5.1 Equilibria:  Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theories

Part 5.2 click me! Self-ionisation of water and pH scale

Part 5.3 click me! Strong acids - examples and pH calculations

Part 5.4 click me! Weak acids - examples & pH, Ka and pKa calculations

Part 5.5 click me! Strong bases - examples and pH calculations

Part 5.6 click me! weak bases - examples and pH, Kb and pKb calculations

Part 5.7 click me! Basic notes and equations on acids, bases, salts, uses of acid-base titrations - upgrade from GCSE!

Part 6.1 Equilibria - Salt hydrolysis

Part 6.2 click me! Acid-base indicator theory, pH curves and titrations

Part 6.3 click me! Buffers - definition, formulation and action

Part 6.4 click me! Buffer calculations

Part 6.5 click me! Case studies of buffer function

Part 7.1 Redox equilibria, half-cell reactions and electrode potentials

Part 7.2 click me! Simple cells notation and construction

Part 7.3 click me! The hydrogen electrode and standard conditions

Part 7.4 click me! Half-cell potentials, Electrochemical Series and using Eθcell for reaction feasibility

Part 7.5 click me! Electrochemical cells ('batteries') and fuel cell systems

Part 7.6 click me! Electrolysis and the electrochemical series

Part 7.7 click me! Exemplar Questions, Appendix 1. The Nernst Equation, Appendix 2 Free Energy, Cell Emf and Kc

Part 8.1 Vapour pressure origin and examples

Part 8.2.1 Introduction to Intermolecular Forces

Part 8.2.2 Detailed comparative discussion of boiling points of 8 organic molecules

Part 8.3 Boiling point plots for six organic homologous series

Part 8.4 Other case studies of boiling points related to intermolecular forces

Part 8.5 Steam distillation - theory, practice and uses

Part 8.6 Evidence and theory for hydrogen bonding in simple covalent hydrides

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksPart 8.7 Solubility of covalent compounds and miscible & immiscible liquids

Other Notes Links

NANOCHEMISTRY - nanoscience

SMART MATERIALS which obviously overlaps with nanomaterials

 

[ORGANIC NOTES] * [INORGANIC NOTES] * [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL NOTES] * A Level QUESTIONS

 


Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

 

Year 13 A2 Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 13 January 2002

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

 

Advanced relaxation

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

[ORGANIC NOTES] * [INORGANIC NOTES] * [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL NOTES]


UK Exam syllabuses

AQA Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS Level Chemistry and AQA GCE A2 Advanced A Level Chemistry

EDEXCEL GCE Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry & EDEXCEL GCE Advanced A Level A2 Chemistry

OCR GCE Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry (NOT Salters) and OCR GCE A Level A2 Chemistry (NOT Salters)

Salters Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry SALTERS & Salters Advanced A Level A2 Chemistry SALTERS

WJEC Advanced Subsidiary AS GCE Chemistry and WJEC Advanced A2 GCE Chemistry

CCEA Advanced Subsidiary AS GCE Chemistry and CEA-CCEA Advanced A2 GCE Chemistry

Cambridge pre-U GCE chemistry  *  Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) GCE 9701 Chemistry


Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Linksprivate tuition IB AS A2 advanced level residential student tuition courses pupil resources teacher resources publishing company revision guides published by Amazon Harper Collins Education Letts Lonsdale Revision Guides Heinemann Educational Books publishers catalogue CGP Books Educational Hodder Education Philip Adam publications Nelson Thornes Philip Allan Textbooks examination boards AQA Edexcel OCR sciences higher education secondary school education college science education institutions Science GCE courses Advanced Level A AS A2 level tuition help tutors colleges semesters books revision guides college textbooks university education courses GCE biology GCSE chemistry courses GCE physics university courses medicine biochemistry university medical sciences university chemistry university biology university physics environmental science biomedical physics courses revision books worksheets workbooks practice examination paper questions science seminars university entrance examinations exam tuition science teacher training


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