alkanes structure and naming (c) doc balcohols and ether structure and naming (c) doc bDoc Brown's Chemistry ADVANCED LEVEL CHEMISTRY REVISION

A Level Chemistry Revision-Study Notes

For Organic Chemistry

Good memories of 6th form teaching at Whitby Community College (1978-2003)

(now Caedmon College, Whitby, North Yorkshire, England)

ORGANIC NOTES * INORGANIC NOTES * PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL NOTES

Click on  click me! buttons-text below * UK Exam syllabus-specification links * General A Level Revision Questions

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The NEW A Level Chemistry Courses starting in September 2015

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ADVANCED ORGANIC  CHEMISTRY TOPICS

Revision study notes and for researching information

PART 1 ALKANES and OIL

Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Free radical chlorination/bromination to give halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides)

Free radical mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons to give shorter alkanes and alkenes

Ionic mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons

PART 2 ALKENES

Revision notes on the structure and naming of ALKENES (including cyclo..), including nomenclature of many isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr(conc. aq) and HBr(g/non-polar solvent)] to form halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition of bromine with pure bromine or in non-polar solvent (non-aqueous Br2(l/solvent)) to give dibromoalkanes AND addition using bromine water [aqueous Br2(aq)] to give bromo-alcohols

Electrophilic addition of sulphuric acid AND electrophilic addition of water [acid catalyst] to form alcohols

Free radical polymerisation to give poly(alkene) polymers e.g. ethene ==> poly(ethene)

Hydrogenation to give saturated alkanes

PART 3 HALOGENOALKANES (HALOALKANES)

Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES (notes parts 1-3), including nomenclature of many isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to give alcohols]

with extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, rate expression, activated complex etc.

Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile [SN1 or SN2]

Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc. [SN1 or SN2]

Elimination of hydrogen bromide to form alkenes [E1 and E2]

PART 4 ALCOHOLS and ETHERS

Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS, ETHERS, expoxy-alkanes (parts 1-2), including isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Conversion of an alcohol to a halogenoalkane

Elimination of water from an alcohol to give an alkene [acid catalysed, E1 and E2]

PART 5 ALDEHYDES and KETONES

Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones, including nomenclature of isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to form a hydroxy-nitrile

Addition of hydrogen - reduction with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to give alcohols

The iodination of ketones e.g. a 2-one like propanone (a methyl ketone) to give iodo-ketones

PART 6 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES e.g. substituted molecules, esters, amides, acyl chlorides etc.

The structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Hydrolysis of acid chlorides with water to give a carboxylic acid

Esterification of acid chlorides with alcohols to give an ester

Amide formation from reaction of acid chlorides with ammonia or primary amines

PART 7 AROMATIC COMPOUNDS - arenes, phenols, haloaromatics, aromatic amines, aromatic carboxylic acids etc.

The Structure & Naming of Aromatic Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

The following notes have basic reaction conditions, reagents and general equations as well as detailed notes on the mechanisms indicated

Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene

Chlorination to chloro-aromatics like chlorobenzene

Alkylation to give alkyl-aromatics like methylbenzene [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Sulphonation/sulfonation to give a sulphonic/sulfonic acid like benzenesulphonic acid

PART 8 ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS - amines, amides, amino acids etc.

The Structure, Classification & Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

PART 9 FUNCTIONAL GROUP & HOMOLOGOUS SERIES SUMMARY (includes an introduction to organic chemistry)

A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

PART 10 SUMMARY NOTES on ORGANIC CHEMISTRY MECHANISMS and ORGANIC SYNTHESIS ROUTES

PART 10 An Introduction to organic chemical reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained

Organic Synthesis - MECHANISMS INDEX

Part 10.2 ALKANES - an introduction to their chemistry

Free radical chlorination/bromination to give halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides)

Free radical mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons to give shorter alkanes and alkenes

Ionic mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons

Part 10.3 ALKENES - introduction to their chemistry

Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr(conc. aq) and HBr(g/non-polar solvent)] to form halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition of bromine with pure bromine or in non-polar solvent (non-aqueous Br2(l/solvent)) to give dibromoalkanes AND addition using bromine water [aqueous Br2(aq)] to give bromo-alcohols

Electrophilic addition of sulphuric acid AND electrophilic addition of water [acid catalyst] to form alcohols

Free radical polymerisation to give poly(alkene) polymers e.g. ethene ==> poly(ethene)

Hydrogenation to give saturated alkanes

Part 10.4 HALOGENOALKANES - introduction to the chemistry of haloalkanes/alkyl halides

Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to give alcohols]

with extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, rate expression, activated complex etc.

Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile [SN1 or SN2]

Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc. [SN1 or SN2]

Elimination of hydrogen bromide to form alkenes [E1 and E2]

Part 10.5 ALCOHOLS - introduction to their chemistry

Conversion of an alcohol to a halogenoalkane

Elimination of water from an alcohol to give an alkene [acid catalysed, E1 and E2]

Part 10.6 Carbonyl compounds - ALDEHYDES and KETONES - introduction to their chemistry

Nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to form a hydroxy-nitrile

Addition of hydrogen - reduction with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to give alcohols

The iodination of ketones e.g. a 2-one like propanone (a methyl ketone) to give iodo-ketones

Part 10.7 Carboxylic Acids and ACID CHLORIDES - introduction - all nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions

Hydrolysis of acid chlorides with water to give a carboxylic acid

Esterification of acid chlorides with alcohols to give an ester

Amide formation from reaction of acid chlorides with ammonia or primary amines

Part 10.8 AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitutions

Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene

Chlorination to chloro-aromatics like chlorobenzene

Alkylation to give alkyl-aromatics like methylbenzene [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Sulphonation/sulfonation to give a sulphonic/sulfonic acid like benzenesulphonic acid/benzenesulfonic acid

The orientation of products in aromatic substitution (2,4,6 or 3,5 positions, ortho, para & meta substitution products)

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksPART 11 QUALITATIVE TESTS

Qualitative Analysis Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index)

PART 12 A summary of ORGANIC REDOX REACTIONS detailed notes on redox synthesis reactions

Revision notes on Oxidation and reduction synthesis reactions, fuel cells etc. (sub-indexes of sections)

PART 13 ORGANIC MOLECULE SHAPES and BOND ANGLES

Revision notes on molecule shapes - section added on the bond angles of organic molecules

PART 14 ISOMERISM in ORGANIC MOLECULES

PART 14 ISOMERISM INDEX: 14.1 ISOMERISM general introduction-definition

STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM general definition * 14.1a Chain isomerism

14.1b Positional isomerism * 14.1c Functional group isomerism * 14.1d Tautomerism

14.2 STEREOISOMERISM introduction and E/Z isomerism ('ex' Geometric/Geometrical cis/trans Isomerism)

14.3 R/S Optical Isomerism and chiral auxiliary synthesis

14.4 Protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition

14.5 Combinatorial chemistry * 14.6 Stereoregular polymers -  isotactic/atactic/syndiotactic poly(propene)

and also Isomerism in Transition metal complexes

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and LinksOther Notes Links

NANOCHEMISTRY index - nanoscience nanoparticles fullerenes carbon nanotubes

SMART MATERIALS index which obviously overlaps with nanomaterials

Formulation chemistry

Uses of chemicals, 220+ examples in alphabetical order, GCSE orientated, but still useful quotes

 

[ORGANIC NOTES] * [INORGANIC NOTES] * [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL NOTES] * A Level QUESTIONS

 


UK Exam syllabuses

AQA Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS Level Chemistry and AQA GCE A2 Advanced A Level Chemistry

EDEXCEL GCE Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry & EDEXCEL GCE Advanced A Level A2 Chemistry

OCR GCE Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry (NOT Salters) and OCR GCE A Level A2 Chemistry (NOT Salters)

Salters Advanced Subsidiary AS Level Chemistry SALTERS & Salters Advanced A Level A2 Chemistry SALTERS

WJEC Advanced Subsidiary AS GCE in Chemistry and WJEC Advanced A2 GCE in Chemistry

CCEA Advanced Subsidiary AS GCE in Chemistry and CEA-CCEA Advanced A2 GCE in Chemistry

Cambridge pre-U GCE chemistry  *  Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) GCE 9701 Chemistry


Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

 

Year 13 A2 Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 13 January 2002

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

 

Advanced relaxation

Advanced Chemistry Page Index and Links

[ORGANIC NOTES] * [INORGANIC NOTES] * [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL NOTES]


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