BROWN'S CHEMISTRY REVISION WEBSITE revision notes for GCSE/IGCSE/O level students
A NEW more concise button index below,
the original detailed index has been left further down the page!
Also note the help pages
AQA GCSE SCIENCES *
EDEXCEL GCSE SCIENCES
OCR GCSE 21st CENTURY SCIENCES *
OCR GCSE GATEWAY SCIENCES
Chemistry GCSE/IGCSE/O level KS4 Science-CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES
Suitable for AQA, Edexcel & OCR Gateway 21st
Century Science Courses
and all other KS4
Science-CHEMISTRY, IGCSE and US Grades 8-10 COURSES
These study notes
include physical and chemical properties-reactions, balanced equations, uses
of elements and compounds
not all of the notes are needed by any
student, but they have to cover ALL syllabuses and there is a link to a
section of links to quizzes, worksheets, crosswords etc.
Some of these web
pages are very long BUT remember there is a sub-index at the top of every
page and you can do 'highlighted-selected' printouts.
SCROLL DOWN to see what's on offer, click on
notes-information icon links for help notes
Topic revision-information study revision notes
SOME IMPORTANT BASICS of CHEMISTRY
definitions in Chemistry - Elements, Compounds, Mixtures pictures and Physical &
How to write
equations, work out formula and name compounds
Definitions and examples of
atoms, elements, compounds and mixtures. Separation methods and physical
and chemical changes and sections on 'how to understand and write
chemical word and symbol equations', lots of formulae examples,
displayed formula and how to work out the formula of a compound. (keyword-phrase
index at top of page)
Quizzes-Worksheets section 1.
elements, compounds or mixtures
of Chemicals - 220+ examples briefly described
TYPES of CHEMICAL CHANGES or REACTIONS
Types of Chemical Reactions or Chemical Processes GCSE Revision
- 40+ different
reactions-processes are described, use the top alphabetical index to
find examples of the reaction type you seek,
if one is missing, always happy to add extra examples.
Quizzes-Worksheets section 1.
SIMPLE CHEMICAL TESTS
used in school/college laboratories
ANALYSIS - Qualitative
Chemical Identification Tests GCSE Revision Study Notes
- Gives descriptions of lots of tests for gases, ions and organic
etc. and labelled diagrams of hazard warning symbols.
Use alphabetical keyword index near top of the page. It covers all the
chemical tests for KS3, GCSE, AS and A2.
Email me if you think one is missing but first checkout the
Qualitative tests to identify organic molecule functional
groups of homologous series
Metal cations (positive ions), metal carbonates, ammonium ion, hydrogen ions (acids)
water and non-metallic elements
Anions (negative ions) including
Methods of preparing and collecting gases revision notes
- Reactants and use of gas syringes, test tubes etc. to collect the gas
and reference to some hazards etc.
ACIDS, ALKALIS, pH SCALE, BASES,
NEUTRALISATION and SALT PREPARATIONS
Acids, Bases, Alkalis, pH, Neutralisation and Salts GCSE Study
1. Everyday examples of acid-alkali chemistry
2. pH scale, indicators, ionic theory of acids, alkalis
(bases) & neutralisation
3. Examples of
acid, neutral or alkaline
4. Acid reactions with
metals, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and neutralisation reactions
Reactions of bases-alkalis
like sodium hydroxide
6. Four methods
of making salts
Making a salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali) -
Preparing a salt by reacting an acid with a metal or with an
insoluble base - oxide, hydroxide or carbonate
insoluble salt by mixing solutions of two soluble compounds
Method (d) Making a
salt by directly combining its constituent elements
7. Changes in pH in a
8. Important formulae,
salt solubility and water of crystallisation
Further examples of word/symbol equations
involving acids, bases, alkalis
More on Acid-Base Theory and Weak and Strong
Quizzes-Worksheets section 12.
Cycle, Solubility and Hard and Soft Water -
water treatment, colloids, solubility
cycle, treatment, pollution
Colloids - sols, foam and emulsions
and soft water - causes and treatment
Gas and salt solubility
in water and solubility curves
Calculation of water of crystallisation
The PERIODIC TABLE
The Periodic Table - overview and summary
- gcse revision study notes
- Explanation and overview of Groups, Periods, Series etc. with links to
more detailed notes on the Group 1 Alkali Metals, Group 7 Halogens,
Group 0 Noble Gases and Transition Metals.
Quizzes-Worksheets section 3.
DATA on Groups 1,2,7,0 and
3d-Transition Metals for GCSE-IGCSE students. See also individual Groups or
Series of elements.
Group 1 ALKALI METALS
The Alkali Metals GCSE revision study notes - Tabulated element data for
lithium, sodium and potassium etc., physical and chemical properties of
the metals, group trends, reactions with water, oxygen and chlorine,
theory of group reactivity trend, compound formulae, uses of metals and
Quizzes-Worksheets section 4.
The Physical & Chemical
Properties and Uses of Transition Metals and mention of other
metals - GCSE study revision notes
- chemical and physical properties of them, uses of iron, copper,
chromium etc., and a section on the uses and applications of other
non-transition metals like aluminium.
Sections 4. and 5. Extra Industrial Chemistry and
uses of sodium.
Quizzes-Worksheets section 5.
Group 0 NOBLE GASES
Group 0 Noble Gases GCSE study revision
- data, properties, chemical inertness, uses of helium, neon, argon etc. and
a little chemistry!
Quizzes-Worksheets section 7.
Group 7 HALOGENS
The Halogens GCSE study revision notes -
data, physical properties and chemistry of elements chlorine, bromine,
iodine and their compounds, electrolysis of aqueous sodium
chloride/brine and the uses of the products - chlorine, hydrogen and
Alphabetical keyword-phrase list at top of page.
Quizzes-Worksheets section 8.
Reactions, AMMONIA, NITRIC ACID & FERTILISERS
synthesis, nitric acid, fertilisers and uses, reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium
including reversible reactions, equilibrium theory, nitric acid
manufacture, fertiliser ammonium salt preparation, problems with over-use or
fertilisers. The sections of notes on each metal are listed in reactivity order.
A Reversible Reactions * B
Reversible reactions and Equilibrium
Haber Synthesis of ammonia * D(a)
The Uses of ammonia-nitric acid-fertilisers
The nitrogen cycle
Quizzes-Worksheets section 9.
REACTIVITY SERIES of METALS and CORROSION
Part 1. The Reactivity Series of Metals The reactions of metals with
oxygen, water and acids, displacement reactions
Part 2. Corrosion
- Rusting of Iron and Redox Reactions
Introduction rusting of iron and preventing
its corrosion, plus a detailed introduction to oxidation-reduction (redox)
reactions, simple cells etc.
Metal Reactivity Series
Experiments-Observations (separate page)
Quizzes-Worksheets section 14.
The Mining and EXTRACTION-MANUFACTURE of METALS
The Mining of Minerals and the Extraction of Metals from their Ores GCSE study
- the extraction of aluminium, chromium, copper (and purification),
iron, sodium, titanium and zinc, method details and equations, and method
related to reactivity of the metal and environmental issues.
1. Introduction to Metal Extraction
Extraction of Iron and Steel Making
3. Extraction of Aluminium and Sodium *
Extraction and Purification of Copper
5. Extraction of Zinc, Titanium and Chromium
Economic & environmental Issues - metal extraction
Quizzes-Worksheets section 13.
More Aspects of
Extra GCSE/IGCSE Industrial
Chemistry revision study notes
- limestone chemistry and uses, enzymes, sulphuric acid, uses of metals -
steels, aluminium and titanium, chemical economics etc.
- uses, thermal decomposition of carbonates, hydroxides and nitrates
Biotechnology * 3. Contact Process, the importance of sulphuric acid
metals be made more useful? (alloys of Al, Fe, steel etc.)
The importance of titanium * 6.
Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis
Chemical economics of processes
and sociological and environmental issues etc.
Introduction to 'Formulation Chemistry' e.g. cosmetics, shampoos, paints,
Quizzes-Worksheets section 10.
Extra GCSE/IGCSE Electrochemistry
revision study notes
- an introduction to electrolysis, theory, electrolysis cells,
industrial electrolysis process links summary, experimental methods for
electrolysis, electrode equations, simple cells/batteries, fuel cells
INTRODUCTION to electrolysis – electrolytes,
non–electrolytes, electrode equations
Electrolysis of acidified water (dilute sulfuric acid) 3.
Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine) 4.
Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution 5.
Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide
(and other molten compounds) 6.
Electrolysis of copper(II)
chloride solution 7.
Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid
Summary of electrode equations and products 9.
Summary of electrolysis products from various
Simple cells (batteries) 11.
Quizzes-Worksheets section 21.
the SPEED OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS?
Factors affecting the
rates-speeds of chemical reactions GCSE revision study notes - the factors
affecting reaction rates, experimental methods for obtaining data, graphs,
energy change-reaction profiles and activation energies.
1. What do we mean by
the rate/speed of reaction?
How can we measure the speed or rate of a chemical reaction?
methods are described in this introduction & subsequent sections
2. Collision theory of
chemical reactions and activation energy
3. Factors affecting the speed/rate of a
3a Effect of
3b Effect of
3c Effect of
changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant
3d Effect of
3e Effect of
using a catalyst
4. More examples of graphs
and their interpretation
enzymes, energy changes
Quizzes-Worksheets section 2.
CHANGES-TRANSFERS IN CHEMISTRY
in Chemical Reactions GCSE/AS study revision notes - Exothermic and
endothermic energy changes, breaking/making bonds, bond energy calculations,
simple calorimetry of energy released by fuels and its measurement
The associated m/c quiz includes revision of physical and chemical changes.
1. Heat changes in chemical/physical
changes - exothermic and endothermic
2. Reversible reactions and energy changes
3. Activation energy and reaction profiles
and activation energy
5. Introduction to bond energy/enthalpy calculations
6. Calorimeter methods of determining energy changes
7. Energy transfer calculations from calorimeter results
Quizzes-Worksheets section 15.
STATES OF MATTER - Gases, Liquids and Solids - Particle
States of Matter Part 1
- particle theory - gas, liquid & solid GCSE study revision notes
- notes and diagrams on states, state changes, using the particle model
to explain their properties.
States of Matter Part 2 - Gas Law
Calculations, Ideal gases etc. (includes some A level topics)
Quizzes-Worksheets section 16.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE & INTRODUCTION to the ELECTRONIC
STRUCTURE of atoms
- the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure
notation, electronic structure and the Periodic Table
Quizzes-Worksheets section 17.
CHEMICAL BONDING & STRUCTURE and MATERIALS
Introduction to Materials Structure and
Types of Chemical Bonding GCSE/AS study revision notes -
Ionic, covalent (simple molecule and giant structures) and metallic
bonding (including alloys) theory and examples, physical properties of elements
and compound explained.
Ionic Bonding - compounds and properties
Covalent Bonding -small simple molecules and properties
Covalent Bonding - macromolecules and giant covalent structures
Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals
Quizzes-Worksheets section 18.
Part 1. General introduction to nanoscience
and commonly used terms explained
Part 2. NANOCHEMISTRY - an introduction and potential
Uses of Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) oxide, fat and silver
From fullerenes & bucky balls to carbon nanotubes
Cubic and hexagonal boron nitride BN
Problems, issues and
implications associated with
SMART MATERIALS which
obviously overlaps with nanomaterials
CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS - Thermochromic, Photochromic & Electrochromic Materials
SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS e.g. Nitinol & Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys
SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS, pH and temperature sensitive-responsive polymers,
performance polymers like KEVLAR
GORETEX, THINSULATE and TEFLON-PTFE
PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT (PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS) & PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS
OIL and its USEFUL PRODUCTS & INTRODUCTION TO
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE
Chemistry Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages
Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions
ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons
Pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, what
makes a good fuel?, climate change-global warming
ALSO Extra notes on
5. Alkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbons
6. Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products
7. Polymers, plastics, uses and problems
8. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of
9. Alcohols - Ethanol
- manufacture, properties and reactions
10. Carboxylic acids and esters
11. More on Addition
polymers & condensation polymers, comparing thermoplastics and thermosets
12. Natural Molecules - carbohydrates - sugars
13. Amino acids, proteins,
enzymes & chromatography
14. Oils, fats,
margarine and soaps
15. Vitamins, drugs-analgesic medicines & food
16. Ozone, CFC's and free
Quizzes-Worksheets section 11.
Earth Science GCSE study revision notes
- based a series of 'cue'
questions on atmospheric evolution, carbon cycle, igneous-metamorphic
sedimentary rock formation and properties, plate tectonics and rock cycle etc.
The Evolution of the Earth's atmosphere and
the Carbon Cycle
Summary of the Rock Cycle and types of
Erosion of Rocks - chemical and physical
- granite and basalt etc.
Sedimentary Rocks & fossils - limestone and sandstone
- marble and slate etc.
The Structure of the Earth
- crust, mantle and core layers
- plates movement and their effects
More on Plate Tectonics
and Subduction zones
10. A few geology and atmospheric comments on
our moon and other planets
Quizzes-Worksheets section 20.
Chemical Calculations for GCSE and AS (basic) - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and
quizzes built into the notes.
1. What is
relative atomic mass? (Ar) and relative isotopic mass
2. Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule
3. Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations
Composition by percentage (%) mass of elements
in a compound
Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses
(easy start, not using moles)
Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products
moles and brief mention of actual percent % yield and theoretical yield, atom economy
and formula mass determination
6b. Reacting masses, concentration of solution and volumetric titration calculations
(NOT using moles)
Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations
(relating reacting masses and formula
moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule
(starting with reacting masses or % composition)
9. Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law
Reacting gas volume
ratios, Avogadro's Law
and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous
Molarity, volumes and solution
concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)
Volumetric titration calculations
e.g. acid-alkali titrations
(and diagrams of apparatus).
Electrolysis products calculations
(negative cathode and positive anode products)
e.g. % purity, % percentage & theoretical yield, volumetric titration
apparatus, dilution of solutions
(and diagrams of apparatus), water of crystallisation, quantity of reactants
required, atom economy
Energy transfers in physical/chemical changes, activation energies and reaction profiles
16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationships,
Boyle's and Charles Laws
RADIATION and Nuclear Power
and Nuclear Power GCSE/AS revision study notes
The structure of atoms linked to the properties and uses of alpha, beta
and gamma radiation, radioisotope dating, half-life and explanation of
fission/fusion nuclear reactions etc.
Structure of Atoms - 3 fundamental particles
it is an atom like?
is Radioactivity? Why does it happen?
did they find out there were three types of atomic-ionising radiation?
Detection of Radioactivity and its measurement, units
Ionising Radiation sources
properties of the three types of radioactive emission and symbols
dangers of radioactive emissions - beware of ionising radiation from radio-isotopes!
uses of radioactive Isotopes emitting alpha, beta or gamma radiation
The half-life of a radioisotope - how
long does material remain radioactive? implications!
Uses of decay data and half-life values
archaeological radiocarbon dating, dating rocks
actually happens in alpha and beta radioactive decay?
production of Radioisotopes - artificial sources
fusion reactions and the formation of 'heavy elements'
Nuclear Fission Reactions, nuclear power energy resource
Quizzes-Worksheets section 22.
Also note the help pages
AQA GCSE SCIENCES *
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Revision KS4 Science IGCSE/O level/GCSE
Chemistry Information Study Notes for revising for AQA GCSE Science, CCEA/CEA
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