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Doc Brown's Chemistry GCSE/IGCSE/O level KS4 Science-CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES

Suitable for AQA, Edexcel & OCR Gateway 21st Century Science Courses

and all other KS4 Science-CHEMISTRY, IGCSE and US Grades 8-10 COURSES

Year 13 A2 Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 13 January 2002

  • These study notes include physical and chemical properties-reactions, balanced equations, uses of elements and compounds

  • doc b's CVPLEASE remember not all of the notes are needed by any student, but they have to cover ALL syllabuses and there is a link to a section of links to quizzes, worksheets, crosswords etc.

  • Some of these web pages are very long BUT remember there is a sub-index at the top of every page and you can do 'highlighted-selected' printouts.

SCROLL DOWN to see what's on offer, click on CLICK the likes of me! (c) doc b notes-information icon links for help notes

 GCSE-IGCSE-KS4 Science-Chemistry Topic revision-information study revision notes

Elements, Compounds and MixturesElements, Compounds and MixturesElements, Compounds and MixturesElements, Compounds and Mixtures


Part 1 Some important definitions in Chemistry - Elements, Compounds, Mixtures pictures and Physical & Chemical Changes

Part 2 Methods of Separating Mixtures

Part 3 How to write equations, work out formula and name compounds

Definitions and examples of atoms, elements, compounds and mixtures. Separation methods and physical and chemical changes and sections on 'how to understand and write chemical word and symbol equations', lots of formulae examples, displayed formula and how to work out the formula of a compound. (keyword-phrase index at top of page)

Quizzes-Worksheets section 1.

Uses of ChemicalsUses of ChemicalsUses of ChemicalsUses of ChemicalsUSES of CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

elements, compounds or mixtures

Uses of Chemicals - 220+ examples briefly described

Types of Chemical Reactions or Chemical ProcessesTypes of Chemical Reactions or Chemical ProcessesTypes of Chemical Reactions or Chemical ProcessesTYPES of CHEMICAL CHANGES or REACTIONS

 Types of Chemical Reactions or Chemical Processes GCSE Revision Study Notes - 40+ different reactions-processes are described, use the top alphabetical index to find examples of the reaction type you seek, Email me if one is missing, always happy to add extra examples.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 1.

Chemical Identification Tests

Chemical Identification TestsSIMPLE CHEMICAL TESTS used in school/college laboratories

Part 1 ANALYSIS - Qualitative  Chemical Identification Tests GCSE Revision Study Notes - Gives descriptions of lots of tests for gases, ions and organic molecules-functional groups etc. and labelled diagrams of hazard warning symbols. Use alphabetical keyword index near top of the page. It covers all the chemical tests for KS3, GCSE, AS and A2. Email me if you think one is missing but first checkout the alphabetical index.

Part 2 Qualitative tests to identify organic molecule functional groups of homologous series

 Part 3 Metal cations (positive ions), metal carbonates, ammonium ion, hydrogen ions (acids)

 Part 4 Gases, water and non-metallic elements

 Part 5 Anions (negative ions) including soluble hydroxides (alkalis)

Methods of preparing and collecting gases Methods of preparing and collecting gases revision notes - Reactants and use of gas syringes, test tubes etc. to collect the gas and reference to some hazards etc.


Acids, Bases, Alkalis, pH, Neutralisation and  Salts

doc b Acids, Bases, Alkalis, pH, Neutralisation and Salts GCSE Study Notes

1. Everyday examples of acid-alkali chemistry

2. pH scale, indicators, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

3. Examples of acid, neutral or alkaline solutions

4. Acid reactions with metals, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and neutralisation reactions

5. Reactions of bases-alkalis like sodium hydroxide

6. Four methods of making salts

Making a salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali) - neutralisation reaction

Preparing a salt by reacting an acid with a metal or with an insoluble base - oxide, hydroxide or carbonate

Preparing an insoluble salt by mixing solutions of two soluble compounds

Method (d) Making a salt by directly combining its constituent elements

7. Changes in pH in a neutralisation

8. Important formulae, salt solubility and water of crystallisation

9. Further examples of word/symbol equations involving acids, bases, alkalis

10. More on Acid-Base Theory and Weak and Strong Acids

ALSO Quizzes-Worksheets section 12.

Extra Aqueous ChemistryExtra Aqueous ChemistryWATER

Water Cycle, Solubility and Hard and Soft Water - water treatment, colloids, solubility

1. Water cycle, treatment, pollution

2. Colloids - sols, foam and emulsions

3. Hard and soft water - causes and treatment

4. Gas and salt solubility in water and solubility curves

5. Calculation of water of crystallisation

The Periodic Table - an overview and summary

The Periodic Table - an overview and summaryThe PERIODIC TABLE

The Periodic Table - overview and summary - gcse revision study notes - Explanation and overview of Groups, Periods, Series etc. with links to more detailed notes on the Group 1 Alkali Metals, Group 7 Halogens, Group 0 Noble Gases and Transition Metals.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 3.

Compiled tables of element data for Groups and series of the Periodic Table of ElementsCompiled tables of element data for Groups and series of the Periodic Table of Elements


ELEMENT DATA on Groups 1,2,7,0 and 3d-Transition Metals for GCSE-IGCSE students. See also individual Groups or Series of elements.

Group 1 The Alkali Metals

Group 1 The Alkali MetalsThe Group 1 ALKALI METALS

 Group 1 The Alkali Metals GCSE revision study notes - Tabulated element data for lithium, sodium and potassium etc., physical and chemical properties of the metals, group trends, reactions with water, oxygen and chlorine, theory of group reactivity trend, compound formulae, uses of metals and compounds.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 4.

The Chemistry and Uses of Transition Metals and Uses of other metals

The Chemistry and Uses of Transition Metals and Uses of other metalsThe TRANSITION METALS

 The Physical & Chemical Properties and Uses of Transition Metals and mention of other metals - GCSE study revision notes - chemical and physical properties of them, uses of iron, copper, chromium etc., and a section on the uses and applications of other non-transition metals like aluminium.

See also Sections 4. and 5. Extra Industrial Chemistry and uses of sodium.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 5.

Group 0 Noble Gases

Group 0 Noble GasesThe Group 0 NOBLE GASES

 Group 0 Noble Gases GCSE study revision notes - data, properties, chemical inertness, uses of helium, neon, argon etc. and a little chemistry!

Quizzes-Worksheets section 7.

Group 7 The Halogens

Group 7 The HalogensThe Group 7 HALOGENS

 Group 7 The Halogens GCSE study revision notes - data, physical properties and chemistry of elements chlorine, bromine, iodine and their compounds, electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride/brine and the uses of the products - chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide.  Alphabetical keyword-phrase list at top of page.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 8.

Ammonia synthesis and uses, reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium

Ammonia synthesis and uses, reversible reactions and chemical equilibriumReversible  Reactions, AMMONIA, NITRIC ACID & FERTILISERS

 Ammonia synthesis, nitric acid, fertilisers and uses, reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium including reversible reactions, equilibrium theory, nitric acid manufacture, fertiliser ammonium salt preparation, problems with over-use or fertilisers. The sections of notes on each metal are listed in reactivity order.

A Reversible Reactions  *  B Reversible reactions and Equilibrium

C The Haber Synthesis of ammonia  *  D(a) The Uses of ammonia-nitric acid-fertilisers

D(b) Fertilisers-environmental problems  *  E The nitrogen cycle

Quizzes-Worksheets section 9.


The Reactivity Series of Metals, Corrosion and  Redox ReactionsREACTIVITY SERIES of METALS and CORROSION

Part 1. The Reactivity Series of Metals The reactions of metals with oxygen, water and acids, displacement reactions

Part 2. Corrosion - Rusting of Iron and Redox Reactions Introduction rusting of iron and preventing its corrosion, plus a detailed introduction to oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, simple cells etc.

Part 3. Metal Reactivity Series Experiments-Observations (separate page)

Quizzes-Worksheets section 14.

The Extraction of Metals from their Ores

The Extraction of Metals from their OresThe Mining and EXTRACTION-MANUFACTURE of METALS

 The Mining of Minerals and the Extraction of Metals from their Ores GCSE study revision notes - the extraction of aluminium, chromium, copper (and purification), iron, sodium, titanium and zinc, method details and equations, and method related to reactivity of the metal and environmental issues.

1. Introduction to Metal Extraction * 2. Extraction of Iron and Steel Making

3. Extraction of Aluminium and Sodium * 4. Extraction and Purification of Copper

5. Extraction of Zinc, Titanium and Chromium * 6. Economic & environmental Issues - metal extraction

Quizzes-Worksheets section 13.

Extra Industrial Chemistry

Extra Industrial ChemistryMore Aspects of INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

 Extra GCSE/IGCSE Industrial Chemistry revision study notes - limestone chemistry and uses, enzymes, sulphuric acid, uses of metals - steels, aluminium and titanium, chemical economics etc.

1. Limestone, lime - uses, thermal decomposition of carbonates, hydroxides and nitrates

2. Enzymes and Biotechnology  *  3. Contact Process, the importance of sulphuric acid

4. How can metals be made more useful? (alloys of Al, Fe, steel etc.)

5. The importance of titanium  *  6. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis

7. Chemical economics of processes and sociological and environmental issues etc.

Introduction to 'Formulation Chemistry' e.g. cosmetics, shampoos, paints, pesticides etc.

 (See also Transition Metals).  Quizzes-Worksheets section 10.



 Extra GCSE/IGCSE Electrochemistry revision study notes  - an introduction to electrolysis,  theory, electrolysis cells,  industrial electrolysis process links summary, experimental methods for electrolysis, electrode equations, simple cells/batteries, fuel cells etc.

1. INTRODUCTION to electrolysis – electrolytes, non–electrolytes, electrode equations   2. Electrolysis of acidified water (dilute sulfuric acid)   3. Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine)   4. Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution   5. Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten compounds)   6. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution   7. Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid   8. Summary of electrode equations and products   9. Summary of electrolysis products from various electrolytes   10. Simple cells (batteries)   11. Fuel Cells

Quizzes-Worksheets section 21.

The Rates-speeds of Chemical Reactions

The Rates-speeds of Chemical ReactionsWhat controls the SPEED OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS?

 Factors affecting the rates-speeds of chemical reactions GCSE revision study notes - the factors affecting reaction rates, experimental methods for obtaining data, graphs, energy change-reaction profiles and activation energies.

1. What do we mean by the rate/speed of reaction?

How can we measure the speed or rate of a chemical reaction?

Experimental methods are described in this introduction & subsequent sections

2. Collision theory of chemical reactions and activation energy

3. Factors affecting the speed/rate of a chemical reaction:

3a Effect of changing concentration

3b Effect of changing pressure

3c Effect of changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant

3d Effect of changing temperature

3e Effect of using a catalyst

3f Light initiated reactions

4. More examples of graphs and their interpretation

See also enzymes, energy changes and coursework ideas.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 2.

Energy changes-transfers in Chemical Reactions

Energy changes-transfers in Chemical ReactionsENERGY CHANGES-TRANSFERS IN CHEMISTRY

 Energy changes-transfers in Chemical Reactions GCSE/AS study revision notes - Exothermic and endothermic energy changes, breaking/making bonds, bond energy calculations, simple calorimetry of energy released by fuels and its measurement and calculation. The associated m/c quiz includes revision of physical and chemical changes.

1. Heat changes in chemical/physical changes - exothermic and endothermic

2. Reversible reactions and energy changes

3. Activation energy and reaction profiles

4. Catalysts and activation energy

5. Introduction to bond energy/enthalpy calculations

6. Calorimeter methods of determining energy changes

7. Energy transfer calculations from calorimeter results

Quizzes-Worksheets section 15.

STATES OF MATTER - Gases, Liquids and Solids - Particle models

States of Matter - gas, liquid & solidStates of Matter - gas, liquid & solidStates of Matter - gas, liquid & solidStates of Matter Part 1 - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid GCSE study revision notes - notes and diagrams on states, state changes, using the particle model to explain their properties.

States of Matter Part 2 - Gas Law Calculations, Ideal gases etc. (includes some A level topics)

Quizzes-Worksheets section 16.


CLICK me!Atomic StructureAtomic Structure Atomic Structure - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, electronic structure and the Periodic Table

Quizzes-Worksheets section 17.

Structure and Chemical Bonding

Structure and Chemical BondingStructure and Chemical BondingCHEMICAL BONDING & STRUCTURE and MATERIALS SCIENCE

Part 1 Introduction to Materials Structure and Types of Chemical Bonding GCSE/AS study revision notes - Ionic, covalent (simple molecule and giant structures) and metallic bonding (including alloys) theory and examples, physical properties of elements and compound explained.

Part 2 Ionic Bonding - compounds and properties

Part 3 Covalent Bonding -small simple molecules and properties

Part 4 Covalent Bonding - macromolecules and giant covalent structures

Part 5 Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals

Quizzes-Worksheets section 18.



Part 1. General introduction to nanoscience and commonly used terms explained

Part 2. NANOCHEMISTRY - an introduction and potential applications

Part 3. Uses of Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) oxide, fat and silver

Part 4. From fullerenes & bucky balls to carbon nanotubes

Part 5. Graphene and Fluorographene

Part 6. Cubic and hexagonal boron nitride BN

Part 7. Problems, issues and implications associated with using nanomaterials


SMART MATERIALS which obviously overlaps with nanomaterials

Part 1 CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS - Thermochromic, Photochromic & Electrochromic Materials

Part 2 SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS e.g. Nitinol & Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

Part 3 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS, pH and temperature sensitive-responsive polymers, Self-healing materials


Part 5 High performance polymers like KEVLAR






Oil and its useful productsOil and its useful productsOil and its useful productsOil and its useful productsKS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE Chemistry Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages

1. Fossil Fuels

2. Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

3. ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons

4. Pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, what makes a good fuel?, climate change-global warming

ALSO Extra notes on Global Warming

5. Alkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbons

6. Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

7. Polymers, plastics, uses and problems

8. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds?

9. Alcohols - Ethanol - manufacture, properties and reactions

10. Carboxylic acids and esters

11. More on Addition polymers & condensation polymers, comparing thermoplastics and thermosets

12. Natural Molecules - carbohydrates - sugars - starch

13. Amino acids, proteins, enzymes & chromatography

14. Oils, fats, margarine and soaps

15. Vitamins, drugs-analgesic medicines & food additives

16. Ozone, CFC's and free radicals

Se ALSO Quizzes-Worksheets section 11.


Earth Science NotesEarth Science NotesEarth Science Notes Earth Science GCSE study revision notes - based a series of 'cue' questions on atmospheric evolution, carbon cycle, igneous-metamorphic sedimentary rock formation and properties, plate tectonics and rock cycle etc.

1. The Evolution of the Earth's atmosphere and the Carbon Cycle

2. Summary of the Rock Cycle and types of rock

3. Erosion of Rocks - chemical and physical weathering

4. Igneous Rocks - granite and basalt etc.

5. Sedimentary Rocks & fossils - limestone and sandstone etc.

6. Metamorphic Rocks - marble and slate etc.

7. The Structure of the Earth - crust, mantle and core layers

8. Tectonic Plates - plates movement and their effects

9. More on Plate Tectonics and Subduction zones

10. A few geology and atmospheric comments on our moon and other planets

Quizzes-Worksheets section 20.

Chemical Calculations

Chemical CalculationsChemical Calculations


 Chemical Calculations for GCSE and AS (basic) - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and quizzes built into the notes.

1. What is relative atomic mass? (Ar) and relative isotopic mass

2. Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

3. Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

4. Composition by percentage (%) mass of elements in a compound

5. Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

6a. Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products (NOT using moles and brief mention of actual percent % yield and theoretical yield, atom economy and formula mass determination

6b. Reacting masses, concentration of solution and volumetric titration calculations (NOT using moles)

7. Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass).

8. Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

9. Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

10. Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

11. Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

12. Volumetric titration calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus).

13. Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

14. Other calculations e.g. % purity, % percentage & theoretical yield, volumetric titration apparatus, dilution of solutions (and diagrams of apparatus), water of crystallisation, quantity of reactants required, atom economy

15. Energy transfers in physical/chemical changes, activation energies and reaction profiles

16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationships, Boyle's and Charles Laws


RadioactivityRadioactivitydoc b Radioactivity and Nuclear Power GCSE/AS revision study notes - The structure of atoms linked to the properties and uses of alpha, beta and gamma radiation, radioisotope dating, half-life and explanation of fission/fusion nuclear reactions etc.

1a. The Structure of Atoms - 3 fundamental particles

1b. What it is an atom like?

2a. What is Radioactivity? Why does it happen?

2b. How did they find out there were three types of atomic-ionising radiation?

3a. Detection of Radioactivity and its measurement, units

3b. Ionising Radiation sources

4a. The properties of the three types of radioactive emission and symbols

4b The dangers of radioactive emissions - beware of ionising radiation from radio-isotopes!

5. The uses of radioactive Isotopes emitting alpha, beta or gamma radiation

6a. The half-life of a radioisotope - how long does material remain radioactive? implications!

6b. Uses of decay data and half-life values archaeological radiocarbon dating, dating rocks

7a. What actually happens in alpha and beta radioactive decay?

7b. The production of Radioisotopes - artificial sources

8. Nuclear fusion reactions and the formation of 'heavy elements'

9. Nuclear Fission Reactions, nuclear power energy resource

Quizzes-Worksheets section 22.





Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

My last GCSE Science-Chemistry-Physics class Set 10DE1 Whitby Community College 2002-2003


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