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Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Revision Notes Part 11.1 DATA on selected Groups & Series of Elements

After 11.1 Notes about the data itself, there is lots of data and graphs is presented on  * 11.2 Periodicity Plots * 11.3 Group 1 Alkali Metals * 11.4 Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals * 11.5 The 3d block Transition Metals Series * 11.6 Group 3 (13) * 11.7 Group 4 (14) * 11.8 Group 5 (15) * 11.9 Group 6 (16) * 11.10 Group 7 (17) The Halogens * 11.11 Group 0 (18) The Noble Gases * 11.12 Full Periodic Table * 11.13 Periods 1 to 4 Data Tables * 11.14 Alphabetical Element name list with symbol and atomic number Z. There are also links to more detailed advanced level chemistry notes on each group or series.

For non advanced level students see (c) doc b GCSE/IGCSE Periodic Table notes with links to group notes

INORGANIC Part 11 Data page sub-index: 11.1 Notes about the data * 11.2 Periodicity Plots * 11.3 Group 1 Alkali Metals * 11.4 Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals * 11.5 Transition Metals * 11.6 Group 3 (13) * 11.7 Group 4 (14) * 11.8 Group 5 (15) * 11.9 Group 6 (16) * 11.10 Group 7 (17) Halogens * 11.11 Group 0 (18) Noble Gases * 11.12 Full Periodic Table * 11.13 Periods 1 to 4 Data Tables * 11.14 Alphabetical Element name list with symbol and atomic number Z and 11.15 The full modern Period Table

Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index * Part 1 Periodic Table history * Part 2 Electron configurations, spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, ionisation energies * Part 3 Period 1 survey H to He * Part 4 Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part 5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar * Part 6 Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends down a group * Part 7 s-block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals * Part 8  p-block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 * Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens * Part 10 3d block elements & Transition Metal Series * Part 11 Group & Series data & periodicity plots * All 11 Parts have their own sub-indexes near the top of the pages

11.1 Some Notes on the Data presented

I cannot offer 100% authenticity on the data, values vary from source to source, but I've done my best to sift the sources!

na means not applicable or not available.

sub means it sublimes (solid ==> gas) on heating.

Allotropes are different physical forms of the same element in the same physical state (examples).

To convert melting/boiling points to Kelvin, add 273 (K = oC +273)

To convert density to kgm-3, multiply by 1000 (kgm-3 = gcm-3 x 1000)

IE = ionisation energy, it is the energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from a gaseous atom or positive ion (it is always endothermic) e.g.

1st IE of helium, He(g) ==> He+(g) + e-, doc bH = +2370kJmol-1 

2nd IE of sodium, Na+(g) ==> Na2+(g) + e-, doc bH = +4562kJmol-1 

Atomic or ionic radii are quoted in pm = picometre = 10-12m,

to convert to nm = nanometre = 10-9m, divide pm by 1000 (or pm = nm x 1000).

These radii can be considered as the boundary within the electrons spend the majority of their time (sometimes quoted as 95% of all electron charge).

There are some general definitions and rules on radii:

There is much confusion about radii and the diagram below attempts to sort out what the different definitions stated below mean and the following are illustrated in the diagram below these definitions.

atomic radius - general term for the radius of an atom of an element, BUT it should be qualified e.g. is it the radius of an atom in a giant metal lattice? is it the radius of an atom in a covalent molecule? is it an atom in a giant covalent lattice?

Hence the further qualifying definitions below!

atomic covalent radius - the radius of the atom in the context of a covalent bond (the combined covalent radii of two covalently bonded atoms is equal to their bond length). This would tend to be smaller than what would be considered the atomic radius.

atomic metallic radius - the radius of an atom in the giant metal lattice.

Van der Waals atomic radius - the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms in neighbouring molecules in a covalent crystal lattice. This in a sense is the real volume of space occupied by a molecule.

Ionic radius - the radius of an ion in a giant ionic lattice

Positive ion (cation) radii are always smaller than atomic radii because the same positive nuclear charge is attracting and holding less electrons. The more electrons removed, the smaller the radius becomes. In the case of positive ions with a noble gas configuration a whole layer of shielding is removed on ion formation e.g. Mg [2,8,2] ==> Mg2+ [2,8]

Negative ion (anion) radii are always larger than covalent atomic radii but are usually similar to the element's Van der Waal radius.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and LinksElectronegativity is the electron attracting power of an atom in a covalent bonding situation (the Pauling scale is used here). The lowest values occur with the most reactive metals with the lowest IE's at the lower left of the periodic table. The highest values occur with the most reactive non-metals with the highest IE's at the upper right of the periodic table.

The electron configurations are quoted twice, (i) by the number of electrons in each principal shell, (ii) using the more advanced modern s, p, d and f sub-shell notation.

The oxidation states quoted, are those most likely to be encountered, but their relative stability is variable and important. In the detailed notes I will point out their relative importance. Detailed notes on oxidation state and redox reaction theory.

The electrode potentials (half-cell E values), apart from groups 1 and 2, usually refer to aqueous systems with a pH of 7 or less. Particularly for transition metals, the half-cell values can significantly change from acid to alkaline media, another data problem!

Electron Affinity is the energy change associated with a gaseous atom or negative ion gaining an electron e.g.

for the electron affinity of chlorine: Cl(g) + e- ==> Cl-(g), doc bH = -364kJmol-1 

Bond energy (bond enthalpy) is the energy required to break one mole of a particular bond from a species in its gaseous state (at 298K, 1 atm.). Most values are a typical or average values for gaseous species.

for the hydrogen chloride bond energy: HCl(g) ==> H.(g) + Cl.(g), doc bH = +431kJmol-1 

Flame colours have been included for some s-block metals as they are used as simple identity tests (the transition metal copper gives a green flame colour, and some blue)


 

11.2 Three selected PERIODICITY data-graphs

These graphs have been added covering Periods 1-6 and the start of Period 7 to help in the study of 'Periodicity'. They present data tables and graphs of melting/boiling point, 1st ionisation energy, atomic radius and Pauling electronegativity. Links to the first 'experimental' editions below.

Periodicity graphs Elements Z = 1 to 20 covering Periods 1-3 and start of Period 4

Periodicity graphs Elements Z = 1 to 38 covering Periods 1-4 and start of Period 5

Periodicity graphs Elements Z = 1 to 96 covering Periods 1-6 and start of Period 7

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.3 The GROUP 1 THE ALKALI METALS

All soft silvery grey solids at room temperature and pressure * detailed advanced level notes * GCSE notes

property\Z symbol, name 3Li Lithium 11Na Sodium 19K Potassium 37Rb Rubidium 55Cs Caesium 87Fr Francium (radioactive)
Period 2 3 4 5 6 7
melting point/oC 181 98 64 39 29 27
boiling point/oC 1347 883 774 688 679 677
density/gcm-3 0.53 0.97 0.86 1.48 1.87 approx. 2
1st IE/kJmol-1 513 496 419 403 376 400
2nd IE/kJmol-1 7298 4562 3051 2632 2420 2100
atomic metallic radius/pm 152 186 231 244 262 270
M+ ionic radius/pm 78 98 133 149 165 180
electronegativity 0.98 0.93 0.82 0.82 0.79 0.70
simple electron config. 2,1 2,8,1 2,8,8,1 2,8,18,8,1 2,8,18,18,8,1 2,8,18,32,18,8,1
advanced electron config. [He]2s1 [Ne]3s1 [Ar]4s1 [Kr]5s1 [Xe]6s1 [Rn]7s1
Electrode potential M/M+ -3.04V -2.71V -2.92V -2.92V -2.92V -2.92V
Symbol - flame colour Li - red Na - yellow K - lilac Rb - red Cs - blue Fr - na
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical cond'y Relative thermal conductivity
oC K oC K
3Li lithium M [He]2s1 +1 181 454 1347 1620 0.98 152 513 0.5 0.108 84.7
11Na sodium M [Ne]3s1 +1 98 371 883 1156 0.93 186 496 1.0 0.218 141.0
19K potassium M [Ar]4s1 +1 64 337 774 1047 0.82 231 419 0.8 0.143 102.4
37Rb rubidium M [Kr]5s1 +1 39 312 688 961 0.82 244 403 1.5 0.080 58.2
55Cs caesium M [Xe]6s1 +1 29 302 679 952 0.79 265 376 1.9 0.053 35.9
87Fr francium M [Rn]7s1 +1 27 300 677 950 0.70 270 400 2.0 0.014 15.0

NOTE: Oxidation state of Group 1 metals in all stable compounds is +1

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.4 The GROUP 2 THE ALKALINE EARTH METALS

All silvery grey solids at room temperature and pressure * detailed advanced level chemistry notes

property\Zsymbol, name 4Be Beryllium 12Mg Magnesium 20Ca Calcium 38Sr Strontium 56Ba Barium 88Ra Radium (radioactive)
Period 2 3 4 5 6 7
melting pt./oC 1278 649 839 769 729 700
boiling pt./oC 2760 1090 1484 1384 1637 1140
density/gcm-3 1.85 1.74 1.55 2.54 3.51 5.0
1st IE/ kJmol-1 900 738 590 550 503 509 ?
2nd IE/kJmol-1 1757 1451 1145 1064 965 979
3rd IE/kJmol-1 14848 7733 4910 4210 3600 3300
atomic metallic radius/pm 111 160 197 215 217 223
M2+ ionic radius/pm 34 78 106 127 143 152
electronegativity 1.57 1.31 1.00 0.95 0.89 0.89
simple electron config. 2,2 2,8,2 2,8,8,2 2,8,18,8,2 2,8,18,18,8,2 2,8,18,32,18,8,2
advanced electron config. [He]2s2 [Ne]3s2 [Ar]4s2 [Kr]5s2 [Xe]6s2 [Rn]7s2
Electrode pot'ial M/M2+ -1.97V -2.36V -2.84V -2.89V -2.92V -2.92V
Symbol - flame colour Be - na Mg - na Ca - brick-red Sr - crimson Ba apple-green Ra - na
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
4Be beryllium M [He]2s2 +2 1278 1551 2970 3243 1.57 111 900 1.8 0.250
12Mg magnesium M [Ne]3s2 +2 649 922 1090 1363 1.31 160 738 1.7 0.224
20Ca calcium M [Ar]4s2 +2 839 1112 1484 1757 1.00 197 590 1.6 0.218
38Sr strontium M [Kr]5s2 +2 769 1042 1384 1657 0.95 215 550 2.5 0.043
56Ba barium M [Xe]6s2 +2 729 1002 1637 1910 0.89 215 503 3.6 0.016
88Ra radium M [Rn]7s2 +2 700 973 1140 1413 0.89 223 509 5.0 0.010

NOTE: Oxidation state of Group 2 metals in all stable compounds is +2

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.5 THE 1st TRANSITION SERIES of METALS - 3d block - Period 4

(top elements groups 3-12 in future classification) * GCSE notes * Advanced Chemistry Notes

Z and symbol 21 Sc 22 Ti 23 V 24 Cr 25 Mn 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 30 Zn
property\name scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc
melting pt./oC 1541 1668 1910 1857 1246 1538 1495 1455 1083 420
boiling pt./oC 2836 3287 3380 2672 1962 2861 2870 2730 2567 907
density/gcm-3 2.99 4.54 6.11 7.19 7.33 7.87 8.90 8.90 8.92 7.13
1st IE/kJmol-1 631 658 650 653 717 759 760 737 745 906
2nd IE/kJmol-1 1235 1310 1414 1592 1509 1561 1646 1753 1958 1733
3rd IE/kJmol-1 2389 2652 2828 2987 3248 2957 3232 3393 3554 3832
4th IE/kJmol-1 7089 4175 4507 4740 4940 5290 4950 5300 5326 5730
5th IE/kJmol-1 8844 9573 6294 6690 6990 7240 7670 7280 7709 7970
atomic radius/pm 161 145 132 125 124 124 125 125 128 133
M2+ ionic rad/pm na 90 88 84 80 76 74 72 69 74
M3+ ionic rad/pm 81 76 74 69 66 64 63 62 na na
M4+ ionic rad/pm na 68 60 56 54 na na na na na
oxidation states +3 only +2,3,4 +2,3,4,5 +2,3,6 +2,3,4,6,7 +2,+3, 6 +2,+3 +2,+3 +1,+2 +2 only
electron config'n 2,8,9,2 2,8,10,2 2,8,11,2 2,8,13,1 2,8,13,2 2,8,14,2 2,8,15,2 2,8,16,2 2,8,18,1 2,8,18,2
advanced el'n config'n [Ar] 3d14s2 3d24s2 3d34s2 3d54s1 3d54s2 3d64s2 3d74s2 3d84s2 3d104s1 3d104s2
Elec'de p'l M(s)/M2+(aq) na -1.63V -1.18V -0.90V -1.18V -0.44V -0.28V -0.26V +0.34V -0.76V
Elec'de p'l M(s)/M3+(aq) -2.03V -1.21V -0.85V -0.74V -0.28V -0.04V +0.40 na na na
El'de p'l M2+(aq)/M3+(aq) na -0.37V -0.26V -0.42V +1.52V +0.77V +1.87V na na na
electronegativity 1.36 1.54 1.63 1.66 1.55 1.83 1.88 1.91 1.90 1.65
Z and symbol 21  Sc 22  Ti 23  V 24  Cr 25  Mn 26  Fe 27  Co 28  Ni 29  Cu 30  Zn

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.6 The GROUP 3 (13) Non-metals to metals

Only boron is a true non-metal, the rest are basically metals with a little non-metallic chemical character

property\Zsymbol, name 5B Boron 13Al Aluminium 31Ga Gallium 49In Indium 81Tl Thallium
Period 2 3 4 5 6
Appearance (RTP) brown solid silvery solid silvery solid silvery solid silvery solid
melting pt./oC 2300 661 30 156 304
boiling pt./oC 3659 2467 2400 2080 1457
density/gcm-3 2.3 2.7 5.9 7.3 11.9
1st IE/ kJmol-1 801 577 579 558 589
2nd IE/kJmol-1 2420 1820 1980 1820 1970
3rd IE/kJmol-1 3660 2740 2960 2700 2870
4th IE/kJmol-1 25000 11600 6190 5230 4900
atomic metallic radius/pm 90 (cov) 143 153 163 170
M+ radius/pm na na 113 132 145
M3+ radius/pm na 57 62 92 105
El'de p'l M(s)/M+(aq) na na na -0.13V -0.34V
El'de p'l M(s)/M3+(aq) na -1.66V -0.53V -0.34V +0.72V
El'de p'l M+(aq)/M3+(aq) na na na -0.44V +1.25V
electronegativity 2.04 1.61 1.81 1.76 1.80
simple electron config. 2,3 2,8,3 2,8,18,3 2,8,18,18,3 2,8,18,32,18,3
electron configuration [He]2s22p1 [Ne]3s23p1 [Ar]3d104s24p1 [Kr]4d105s25p1 [Xe]4f145d106s26p1
principal oxidation states +3 +3 +1, +3 +1, +3 +1, +3
property\Zsymbol, name 5B Boron 13Al Aluminium 31Ga Gallium 49In Indium 81Tl Thallium
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
5B boron NM [He]2s22p1 +/-3 2300 2573 3659 3932 2.04 88 801 2.3 <0.001
13Al aluminium M [Ne]3s23p1 +3 661 934 2467 2740 1.61 143 577 2.7 0.382
31Ga gallium M [Ar]3d104s24p1 +1, +3 30 303 2400 2673 1.81 122 579 5.9 0.058
49In indium M [Kr]4d105s25p1 +1, +3 156 429 2080 2353 1.78 163 558 7.3 0.111
81Tl thallium M [Xe]4f145d106s26p1 +1, +3 304 577 1457 1730 1.80 170 589 11.9 0.055

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.7 The GROUP 4 (14) Non-metals to metals

Carbon and silicon are essentially non-metals, germanium is a metalloid.

Tin is basically metallic with a little non-metallic chemical character, lead is a metal.

property\Zsymbol, name 6C carbon 14Si Silicon 32Ge Germanium 50Sn Tin 82Pb Lead
Period 2 3 4 5 6
Appearance (RTP) soft black solid (graphite) / hard clear light coloured crystal (diamond) black amorphous powder or blue-grey metalloid - pure for semi-conductors silvery white brittle metal soft silvery metal soft grey dull-silvery metal
melting pt./oC 3547 sub 1410 937 232 328
boiling pt./oC 4827 sub 2355 2830 2270 1740
density/ gcm-3 2.3 (graphite)/3.5 (diamond) 2.3 5.3 5.8 11.4
1st IE/ kJmol-1 1086 786 762 709 716
2nd IE/kJmol-1 2350 1580 1540 1410 1450
3rd IE/kJmol-1 4610 3230 3300 2940 3080
4th IE/kJmol-1 6220 4360 4390 2930 4080
5th IE/kJmol-1 37800 16000 8950 7780 6700
atomic covalent or metallic  radius/pm 77 (cov) 117 (cov) 139 (met) 158 (met) 175 (met)
M2+ radius/pm na na 90 93 132
M4+ radius/pm na na na 74 84
El'de p'l M(s)/M2+(aq) na na -0.25V -0.14V -0.13V
El'de p'l M2+(aq)/M4+(aq) na na 0.00V +0.15V +1.69V
electronegativity 2.55 1.90 2.01 1.96 2.33
simple electron config. 2,4 2,8,4 2,8,18,4 2,8,18,18,4 2,8,18,32,18,3
electron configuration [He]2s22p2 [Ne]3s23p2 [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p2
principal oxidation states e.g. -4 CH4, +2 CO, +4 CO2 +4 +2, +4 +2, +4 +2, +4
property\Zsymbol, name 6C carbon 14Si Silicon 32Ge Germanium 50Sn Tin 82Pb Lead
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
6C carbon NM [He]2s22p2 +/-4 (+2) 3547 3820 4827 5100 2.55 77 1086 2.3 0.001
14Si silicon NM [Ne]3s23p2 +4 1410 1683 2355 2628 1.90 117 786 2.3 <0.001
32Ge germanium SM [Ar]3d104s24p2 +2, +4 937 1210 2830 3103 2.01 122 762 5.3 <0.001
50Sn tin M [Kr]4d105s25p2 +2, +4 232 505 2270 2543 1.96 141 709 5.8 0.088
82Pb lead M [Xe]4f145d106s26p2 +2, +4 328 601 1740 2013 2.33 175 716 11.4 0.046

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.8 The GROUP 5 (15) Non-metals to metals

Nitrogen and phosphorus are non-metals, arsenic and antimony are semi-metals, bismuth is a metal.

property\Zsymbol, name 7N Nitrogen 15P Phosphorus 33As Arsenic 51Sb Antimony 83Bi Bismuth
Period 2 3 4 5 6
Appearance (RTP) colourless gas white/red solid allotropes grey solid (other yellow/black allotropes) grey metalloid solid (other yellow allotrope) silver-white brittle metal
melting pt./oC -210 44 sublimes 631 272
boiling pt./oC -1.96 280 616? 1635 1560
density/gcm-3 <0.1 1.8 5.8 6.7 9.7
1st IE/ kJmol-1 1402 1060 947 834 703
2nd IE/kJmol-1*          
3rd IE/kJmol-1*          
4th IE/kJmol-1*          
atomic covalent or metallic radius/pm 75 (cov) 110 (cov) 122 (cov) 143 (cov), 161 (met) 182 (met)
X3- ion radius/pm 171 212 na na na
electronegativity 3.04 2.19 2.18 2.05 2.02
simple electron config. 2,5 2,8,5 2,8,8,5 2,8,18,18,5 2,8,18,32,18,5
electron configuration [He]2s22p3 [Ne]3s23p3 [Ar]3d104s24p3 [Kr]4d105s25p3 [Xe]4f145d106s26p3
principal oxidation states -3 to +5 -3, +3, +5 +3, +5 +3, +5 +3, (+5)
property\Zsymbol, name 7N Nitrogen 15P Phosphorus 33As Arsenic 51Sb Antimony 83Bi Bismuth
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
7N nitrogen NM [He]2s22p3 -3 to +5 -210 63 -196 77 3.04 70 1402 <0.1 <0.001
15P phosphorus NM [Ne]3s23p3 +3, +5 44 317 280 553 2.19 110 1060 1.8 <0.001
33As arsenic SM [Ar]3d104s24p3 +3, +5 sub sub sub sub 2.18 121 947 5.8 0.029
51Sb antimony SM [Kr]4d105s25p3 +3, +5 631 904 1635 1908 2.05 182 834 6.7 0.026
83Bi bismuth M [Xe]4f145d106s26p3 +3, +5 272 545 1560 1833 2.02 155 703 9.7 0.009

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.9 The GROUP 6 (16) Non-metals to metals

Oxygen and sulphur are non-metals, selenium and tellurium are semi-metals, polonium is essentially a metal.

property\Zsymbol, name 8O Oxygen 16S Sulphur 34Se Selenium 52Te Tellurium 84Po Polonium (radioactive)
Period 2 3 4 5 6
Appearance (RTP) colourless gas yellow solid (monoclinic/rhombic allotropes) silver metalloid or red powder allotropes silver white metalloid radioactive silvery solid
melting pt./oC -218 117 217 450 254
boiling pt./oC -183 445 685 990 962
density/gcm-3 <0.1 2.1 4.8 6.2 9.3
1st IE/ kJmol-1 1314 1000 941 869 812
2nd IE/kJmol-1*          
3rd IE/kJmol-1*          
4th IE/kJmol-1*          
atomic covalent or metallic radius/pm 73 (cov) 102 (cov) 117 (cov), 190 (met) 135 (cov), 210 (met) 167 (cov), ? (met)
X2- ion radius/pm 140 184 198 221 230
electronegativity 3.44 2.58 2.55 2.10 2.00
simple electron config. 2,6 2,8,6 2,8,8,6 2,8,18,18,6 2,8,18,32,18,6
electron configuration [He]2s22p4 [Ne]3s23p4 [Ar]3d104s24p4 [Kr]4d105s25p4 [Xe]4f145d106s26p4
principal oxidation states -2, +1, (+2) -2, +2, +4, +6 -2, +2, +4, +6 -2, +2, +4, +6 -2, +2, +4, +6
property\Zsymbol, name 8O Oxygen 16S Sulphur 34Se Selenium 52Te Tellurium 84Po Polonium
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
8O oxygen NM [He]2s22p4 -1, -2 -218 55 -183 90 3.44 66 1314 <0.1 <0.001
16S sulphur NM [Ne]3s23p4 -2, +4, +6 117 390 445 718 2.58 104 1000 2.1 <0.001
34Se selenium SM [Ar]3d104s24p4 +4, +6 217 490 685 958 2.55 117 941 4.8 0.080
52Te tellurium SM [Kr]4d105s25p4 +4, +6 450 723 990 1263 2.10 143 869 6.2 <0.001
84Po polonium M [Xe]4f145d106s26p4 +2, +4, +6 254 527 962 1235 2.00 167 812 9.3 0.020

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.10 The GROUP 7 (17) THE HALOGENS non-metals * GCSE notes, helps with AS

property\Z X, name 9F fluorine 17Cl chlorine 35Br bromine 53I iodine 85At astatine (radioactive)
Period 2 3 4 5 6
appearance pale yellow gas pale green gas dark red liquid, orange-brown gas dark grey solid, purple vapour black solid, very dark vapour on heating
melting point/oC -219 -101 -7 114 302
boiling point/oC -188 -34 59 184 380
density/gcm-3 1.1(l) 1.56(l) 3.12(l) 4.93(s) approx 7.5(s)
1st IE/kJmol-1 1681 1251 1140 1010 920
atomic covalent radius/pm 64 99 114 133 140
Van der Waal radius 155 180 190 195 na
X- ionic radius/pm 136 181 195 216 227
X-X(g)bond energy kJmol-1 158 242 193 151 110
H-X(g)bond energy kJmol-1 562 431 366 299 na
C-X(g)bond energy kJmol-1 484 338 276 238 na
electronegativity 3.98 3.16 2.96 2.66 2.20
electron config. 2.7 2.8.7 2.8.18.7 2.8.18.18.7 2.8.18.32.18.7
electron configuration 1s22s22p5 [Ne]3s23p5 [Ar]3d104s24p5 [Kr]4d105s25p5 [Xe]4f145d106s26p5
known oxidation states -1 only -1,+1,3,4,5,7 -1,+1,3,4,5,6,7 -1,+1,3,5,7 -1, +1, +3
Electrode potential X2/X- +2.87V +1.36V +1.07V +0.54V 0.20
Electron affinity/kJmol-1 F  -348 Cl  -364 Br  -342 I  -314 At  -270
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
9F fluorine NM [He]2s22p5 -1 -219 54 -188 85 3.98 64 1681 <0.1 <0.001
17Cl chlorine NM [Ne]3s23p5 -1, +1, +3, +4, +5, +7 -101 172 -34 239 3.16 99 1251 <0.1 <0.001
35Br bromine NM [Ar]3d104s24p5 -1, +1, +3, +4, +5, +7 -7 266 59 332 2.96 114 1140 3.1 <0.001
53I iodine NM [Kr]4d105s25p5 -1, +1, +3, +5, +7 114 387 184 457 2.66 133 1010 4.9 <0.001
85At astatine NM [Xe]4f145d106s26p5 -1, +1, +3, +5, +7 302 575 337 610 2.20 140 930 7.5 <0.001

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.11 The GROUP 0 (18) THE NOBLE GASES non-metals

They are all colourless gases at room temperature and pressure * GCSE notes, helps with AS

property\Z symbol, name 2He helium 10Ne neon 18Ar argon 36Kr krypton 54Xe xenon 86Rn radon (radioactive)
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6
melting point/oC -272 -249 -189 -157 -112 -71
boiling point/oC -269 -246 -186 -152 -108 -62
density/gcm-3(liquid) 0.12 1.21 1.40 2.16 3.50 na
1st IE/kJmol-1 2370 2080 1520 1350 1170 1040
electron configuration 2 2.8 2.8.8 2.8.18.8 2.8.18.18.8 2.8.18.32.18.8
electron configuration 1s2 1s22s22p6 [Ne]3s23p6 [Ar]3d104s24p6 [Kr]4d105s25p6 [Xe]4f145d106s26p6
known oxidation states non stable non stable non stable an unstable +2 +2,4,6,8 na
electronegativity 5.50 4.84 3.20 2.94 2.40 na
atomic covalent radius/pm He   49 Ne   51 Ar   94 Kr   109 Xe  130 Rn   136
ZElement   Electron configuration Oxidation state Melting Point Boiling Point Pauling electro-negativity Atomic radius pm 1st  ionisation energy kJ/mol Density g/cm3 Relative electrical conductivity
oC K oC K
2He helium NM 1s2 - -272 1 -269 4 5.50 49 2372 <0.1 <0.001
10Ne neon NM [He]2s22p6 - -249 24 -246 27 4.84 51 2081 <0.1 <0.001
18Ar argon NM [Ne]3s23p6 - -189 84 -186 87 3.20 94 1520 <0.1 <0.001
36Kr krypton NM [Ar]3d104s24p6 - -157 116 -152 121 3.20 109 1520 <0.1 <0.001
54Xe xenon NM [Kr]4d105s25p6 +2, +4, +6, +8 -112 161 -105 168 2.40 130 1170 <0.1 <0.001
86Rn radon NM [Xe]4f145d106s26p6 - -71 202 -62 211 2.10 136 1037 <0.1 <0.001

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.12 The full modern Periodic Table

Pd s-block metals 3d to 6d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4 to 7), note that the 1st (d1) and 10th (d10) are NOT true transition elements. p-block non-metals and metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3/*13 Gp4/*14 Gp5/*15 Gp6/*16 Gp7/*17 Gp0/*18
1

1H   Note: (i) H does not readily fit into any group, (ii) He not strictly a 'p' element but does belong in Gp 0/18

2He
2 3Li 4Be Full IUPAC modern Periodic Table of Elements ZSymbol, z = atomic or proton number 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg *Gp3 *Gp4 *Gp5 *Gp6 *Gp7 *Gp8 *Gp9 *Gp10 *Gp11 *Gp12 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba *57-71 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
7 87Fr 88Ra *89-103 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cp 113? 114? 115? 116? 117? 118?
Gp 1 Alkali Metals

 Gp 2 Alkaline Earth Metals

Gp 7/17 Halogens

Gp 0/18 Noble Gases

Take note of the four points on the right

 
*57La 58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
*89Ac 90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr

*Horizontal insert in Period 6 of the Lanthanide Metal Series (Lanthanides/Lanthanoids) Z=57 to 71 includes 4f-block series (58-71).

*Horizontal insert in Period 7 of the Actinide Series of Metals (Actinides/Actinoids) Z=89-103 including the 5f-block series (90-103)

  1. Using 0 to denote the Group number of the Noble Gases is historic i.e. when its valency was considered zero since no compounds were known. However, from 1961 stable compounds of xenon have been synthesised exhibiting up to the maximum possible expected valency of 8 e.g. in XeO4.

  2. * 21Sc to 30Zn can be considered as the top elements in the vertical Groups 3 to 12 (marked as *Gp3 to *Gp12).

  3. *Therefore Groups 3-7 and 0 can also be numbered as Groups 13 to 18 (marked as *13, *14, *15, *16, *17 and *18) to fit in with the maximum number of vertical columns of elements in periods 4 and 5 (18 elements per period).

  4. I'm afraid this can make things confusing, but there it is, classification is still in progress and the notation Group 1 to 18 seems due to become universal.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.13 PERIOD DATA TABLES


Period 1 H to He  * Period 1 Survey Notes

Atomic number Element symbol Element name Melting Point oC Melting Point K Boiling Point oC Boiling Point K Pauling electro-negativity 1st ionisation energy kJ/mol Atomic radius pm Relative electrical conductivity Density g/cm3
1 H hydrogen -259 14 -253 20 2.20 1312 37 <0.001 <0.1
2 He helium -272 1 -269 4 5.50 2372 49 <0.000 <0.1

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Period 2 Li to Ne  * Period 2 Survey Notes

Element Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
1st ionization energy (kJ mol-1) 513 900 801 1086 1402 1314 1681 2081
Atomic radius (pm, /1000 for nm) 152 111 88 77 70 66 64 51
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 0.98 1.57 2.04 2.55 3.04 3.44 3.98 4.84
Melting Point (K) 454 1551 2573 3820 63 55 54 24
Boiling Point (K) 1620 3243 3932 5100 77 90 85 27
Relative electrical conductivity 0.150 0.250 <0.001 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Density (g cm-3) 0.5 1.8 2.3 2.3 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 20 covering Periods 1-3 and start of Period 4

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

Period 3 Na to Ar  * Period 3 Survey Notes

Element Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
1st ionization energy (kJ mol-1) 496 738 577 786 1080 1000 1251 1520
Atomic radius (pm, /1000 for nm) 186 160 143 117 110 104 99 94
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 0.93 1.31 1.61 1.90 2.19 2.58 3.16 3.20
Melting Point (K) 371 922 934 1683 317 390 172 84
Boiling Point (K) 1156 1363 2740 2628 553 718 239 87
Relative electrical conductivity 0.218 0.224 0.382 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Density (g cm-3) 1.0 1.7 2.7 2.3 1.8 2.1 <0.1 <0.1

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 20 covering Periods 1-3 and start of Period 4

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 38 covering Periods 1-4 and start of Period 5

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

Period 4 K to Kr

Z symbol Name mpt/oC mpt/K bpt/oC bpt/K Pauling electro-negativity 1st ionisation energy kJ/mol Atomic radius pm Relative electrical conductivity Density g/cm3
19 K potassium 64 337 774 1047 0.82 419 231 0.143 0.8
20 Ca calcium 839 1112 1484 1757 1.00 590 197 0.218 1.6
21 Sc scandium 1541 1814 2836 3109 1.36 631 161 0.015 3.0
22 Ti titanium 1668 1941 3287 3650 1.54 658 145 0.024 4.5
23 V vanadium 1910 2183 3380 3653 1.63 650 132 0.040 6.1
24 Cr chromium 1857 2130 2672 2945 1.66 653 125 0.078 7.2
25 Mn manganese 1246 1519 1962 2235 1.55 717 124 0.054 7.4
26 Fe iron 1538 1811 2861 3134 1.83 759 124 0.100 7.9
27 Co cobalt 1495 1768 2870 3143 1.88 760 125 0.160 8.9
28 Ni nickel 1455 1728 2730 3003 1.91 737 125 0.145 8.9
29 Cu copper 1083 1356 2567 2840 1.90 745 128 0.593 9.0
30 Zn zinc 420 693 907 1180 1.65 906 133 0.167 7.1
31 Ga gallium 30 303 2400 2673 1.81 579 122 0.058 5.9
32 Ge germanium 937 1210 2830 3103 2.01 762 122 <0.001 5.3
33 As arsenic sublimes 616oC/889K 2.18 947 121 0.029 5.8
34 Se selenium 217 490 685 958 2.55 941 117 0.080 4.8
35 Br bromine -7 266 59 332 2.96 1140 114 <0.001 3.1
36 Kr krypton -157 116 -152 121 3.20 1520 109 <0.001 <0.1

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 38 covering Periods 1-4 and start of Period 5

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 96 covering Periods 1-6 and start of Period 7

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Data for elements Z = 1 to Z = 96

Pd Atomic number Element symbol Element name Melting Point oC Melting Point K Boiling Point oC Boiling Point K Pauling electro-negativity 1st ionisation energy kJ/mol Atomic radius pm Relative electrical conductivity Density g/cm3
1 1 H hydrogen -259 14 -253 20 2.20 1312 37 <0.001 <0.1
1 2 He helium -272 1 -269 4 5.50 2372 49 <0.000 <0.1
2 3 Li lithium 181 454 1347 1620 0.98 513 152 0.108 0.5
2 4 Be beryllium 1278 1551 2487 2760 1.57 900 111 0.250 1.8
2 5 B boron 2300 2573 3659 3932 2.04 801 88 <0.001 2.3
2 6 C carbon 3547 3820 4827 5100 2.55 1086 77 0.001 2.3
2 7 N nitrogen -210 63 -196 77 3.04 1402 70 <0.001 <0.1
2 8 O oxygen -218 55 -183 90 3.44 1314 66 <0.001 <0.1
2 9 F fluorine -219 54 -188 85 3.98 1681 64 <0.001 <0.1
2 10 Ne neon -249 24 -246 27 4.84 2081 51 <0.001 <0.1
3 11 Na sodium 98 371 883 1156 0.93 496 186 0.218 1.0
3 12 Mg magnesium 649 922 1090 1363 1.31 738 160 0.224 1.7
3 13 Al aluminium 661 934 2467 2740 1.61 577 143 0.382 2.7
3 14 Si silicon 1410 1683 2355 2628 1.90 786 117 <0.001 2.3
3 15 P phosphorus 44 317 280 553 2.19 1060 110 <0.001 1.8
3 16 S sulphur 117 390 445 718 2.58 1000 104 <0.001 2.1
3 17 Cl chlorine -101 172 -34 239 3.16 1251 99 <0.001 <0.1
3 18 Ar argon -189 84 -186 87 3.20 1520 94 <0.001 <0.1
4 19 K potassium 64 337 774 1047 0.82 419 231 0.143 0.8
4 20 Ca calcium 839 1112 1484 1757 1.00 590 197 0.218 1.6
4 21 Sc scandium 1541 1814 2836 3109 1.36 631 161 0.015 3.0
4 22 Ti titanium 1668 1941 3287 3560 1.54 658 145 0.024 4.5
4 23 V vanadium 1910 2183 3380 3653 1.63 650 132 0.040 6.1
4 24 Cr chromium 1857 2130 2672 2945 1.66 653 125 0.078 7.2
4 25 Mn manganese 1246 1519 1962 2235 1.55 717 124 0.054 7.4
4 26 Fe iron 1538 1811 2861 3134 1.83 759 124 0.100 7.9
4 27 Co cobalt 1495 1768 2870 3143 1.88 760 125 0.160 8.9
4 28 Ni nickel 1455 1728 2730 3003 1.91 737 125 0.145 8.9
4 29 Cu copper 1083 1356 2567 2840 1.90 745 128 0.593 9.0
4 30 Zn zinc 420 693 907 1180 1.65 906 133 0.167 7.1
4 31 Ga gallium 30 303 2400 2673 1.81 579 122 0.058 5.9
4 32 Ge germanium 937 1210 2830 3103 2.01 762 122 <0.001 5.3
4 33 As arsenic sublimes   sublimes 889 2.18 947 121 0.029 5.8
4 34 Se selenium 217 490 685 958 2.55 941 117 0.080 4.8
4 35 Br bromine -7 266 59 332 2.96 1140 114 <0.001 3.1
4 36 Kr krypton -157 116 -152 121 3.20 1520 109 <0.001 <0.1
5 37 Rb rubidium 39 312 688 961 0.82 403 244 0.080 1.5
5 38 Sr strontium 769 1042 1384 1657 0.95 550 215 0.043 2.5
5 39 Y yttrium 1522 1795 3338 3611 1.22 616 181 0.018 4.5
5 40 Zr zirconium 1852 2125 4377 4650 1.33 660 160 0.024 6.5
5 41 Nb niobium 2468 2741 4742 5015 1.60 664 143 0.080 8.6
5 42 Mo molybdenum 2617 2890 4612 4885 2.16 685 136 0.190 10.2
5 43 Tc technetium 2172 2445 4877 5150 1.90 702 136 <0.001 11.5
5 44 Ru ruthenium 2310 2583 3900 4173 2.20 711 133 0.100 12.4
5 45 Rh rhodium 1966 2239 3727 4000 2.28 720 135 0.220 12.4
5 46 Pd palladium 1552 1825 3140 3413 2.20 805 138 0.093 12.0
5 47 Ag silver 962 1235 2212 2485 1.93 731 144 0.620 10.5
5 48 Cd cadmium 321 594 765 1038 1.69 868 149 0.146 8.7
5 49 In indium 156 429 2080 2353 1.78 558 163 0.111 7.3
5 50 Sn tin 232 505 2270 2543 1.96 709 141 0.088 5.8
5 51 Sb antimony 631 904 1635 1908 2.05 834 182 0.026 6.7
5 52 Te tellurium 450 723 990 1263 2.10 869 143 <0.001 6.2
5 53 I iodine 114 387 184 457 2.66 1010 133 <0.001 4.9
5 54 Xe xenon -112 161 -105 168 2.40 1170 130 <0.001 <0.1
6 55 Cs caesium 29 302 679 952 0.79 376 265 0.053 1.9
6 56 Ba barium 729 1002 1637 1910 0.89 503 215 0.016 3.6
6 57 La lanthanum 921 1194 3457 3730 1.10 538 188 0.017 6.1
6 58 Ce cerium 799 1072 3427 3700 1.12 527 183 0.013 8.2
6 59 Pr praseodymium 931 1204 3512 3785 1.13 523 183 0.015 6.8
6 60 Nd neodymium 1021 1294 3068 3341 1.14 530 182 0.013 7.0
6 61 Pm promethium 1168 1441 2727 3000 1.20 536 181 0.024 7.2
6 62 Sm samarium 1077 1350 1791 2064 1.17 543 180 0.011 7.5
6 63 Eu europium 822 1095 1597 1870 1.10 547 204 0.011 5.2
6 64 Gd gadolinium 1313 1586 3266 3539 1.20 593 180 0.007 7.9
6 65 Tb terbium 1356 1629 3123 3396 1.20 565 178 0.009 8.2
6 66 Dy dysprosium 1412 1685 2562 2835 1.22 572 177 0.011 8.6
6 67 Ho holmium 1474 1747 2695 2968 1.23 581 177 0.011 8.8
6 68 Er erbium 1529 1802 2863 3136 1.24 589 176 0.012 9.1
6 69 Tm thulium 1545 1818 1947 2220 1.25 597 174 0.011 9.3
6 70 Yb ytterbium 824 1097 1193 1466 1.10 603 194 0.034 7.0
6 71 Lu lutetium 1663 1936 3395 3668 1.27 524 173 0.013 9.8
6 72 Hf hafnium 2230 2503 5197 5470 1.30 642 156 0.028 13.3
6 73 Ta tantalum 2996 3269 5427 5700 1.50 761 143 0.081 16.7
6 74 W tungsten 3407 3680 5657 5930 2.36 770 137 0.180 19.3
6 75 Re rhenium 3180 3453 5627 5900 1.90 760 137 0.051 21.0
6 76 Os osmium 3054 3327 5027 5300 2.20 840 134 0.110 22.6
6 77 Ir iridium 2410 2683 4130 4403 2.20 880 136 0.190 22.4
6 78 Pt platinum 1772 2045 3827 4100 2.28 870 138 0.094 21.5
6 79 Au gold 1064 1337 2807 3080 2.54 890 144 0.420 19.3
6 80 Hg mercury -39 234 357 630 2.00 1007 160 0.010 13.5
6 81  Tl thallium 304 577 1457 1730 1.80 589 170 0.055 11.9
6 82 Pb lead 328 601 1740 2013 2.33 716 175 0.046 11.4
6 83 Bi bismuth 272 545 1560 1833 2.02 703 155 0.009 9.7
6 84 Po polonium 254 527 962 1235 2.00 812 167 0.020 9.3
6 85 At astatine 302 575 337 610 2.20 930 140 <0.001 7.5
6 86 Rn radon -71 202 -62 211 2.10 1037 136 <0.001 <0.1
7 87 Fr francium 27 300 677 950 0.70 400 270 0.014 2.0
7 88 Ra radium 700 973 1140 1413 0.89 509 223 0.010 5.0
7 89 Ac actinium 1047 1320 3197 3470 1.10 499 188 0.012 10.1
7 90 Th thorium 1750 2023 4787 5060 1.30 587 180 0.055 11.7
7 91 Pa protactinium 1840 2113 4027 4300 1.50 568 161 0.068 15.4
7 92 U uranium 1133 1406 3745 4018 1.38 584 139 0.033 19.0
7 93 Np neptunium 640 913 3902 4175 1.36 597 131 0.010 20.3
7 94 Pu plutonium 641 914 3232 3505 1.28 585 151 0.008 19.8
7 95 Am americium 994 1267 2607 2880 1.30 578 184 0.015 13.7
7 96 Cm curium 1337 1610     1.30 581   0.010 13.3

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 20 covering Periods 1-3 and start of Period 4

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 38 covering Periods 1-4 and start of Period 5

Periodicity plots Elements Z = 1 to 96 covering Periods 1-6 and start of Period 7

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 

11.14 Alphabetical Element name list with symbol and atomic/proton number (Z)

 

Chemical Symbol

Element name

Atomic No. Z

 

Chemical Symbol

Element name

Atomic No. Z

Ac Actinium 89   Md Mendelevium 101
Al Aluminium/Aluminum 13   Hg Mercury 80
Am Americium 95   Mo Molybdenum 42
Sb Antimony 51   Nd Neodymium 60
Ar Argon 18   Ne Neon 10
As Arsenic 33   Np Neptunium 93
At Astatine 85   Ni Nickel 28
Ba Barium 56   Nb Niobium 41
Bk Berkelium 97   N Nitrogen 7
Be Beryllium 4   No Nobelium 102
Bh Bohrium 107   Os Osmium 76
Bi Bismuth 83   O Oxygen 8
B Boron 5   Pd Palladium 46
Br Bromine 35   P Phosphorus 15
Cd Cadmium 48   Pt Platinum 78
Ca Calcium 20   Pu Plutonium 94
Cf Californium 98   Po Polonium 84
C Carbon 6   K Potassium 19
Ce Cerium 58   Pr Praseodymium 59
Cs Caesium 55   Pm Promethium 61
Cl Chlorine 17   Pa Protactinium 91
Cr Chromium 24   Ra Radium 88
Co Cobalt 27   Rn Radon 86
Cp Copernicium 112   - - -
Cu Copper 29   Re Rhenium 75
Cm Curium 96   Rh Rhodium 45
Ds Darmstadtium 110   Rg Roentgenium 111
Db Dubnium 105   Rb Rubidium 37
Dy Dysprosium 66   Ru Ruthenium 44
Es Einsteinium 99   Rf

Rutherfordium

104
Er Erbium 68   Sm Samarium 62
Eu Europium 63   Sc Scandium 21
Fm Fermium 100   Sg Seaborgium 106
F Fluorine 9   Se Selenium 34
Fr Francium 87   Si Silicon 14
Gd Gadolinium 64   Ag Silver 47
Ga Gallium 31   Na Sodium 11
Ge Germanium 32   Sr Strontium 38
Au Gold 79   S Sulphur/Sulfur 16
Hf Hafnium 72   Ta Tantalum 73
Hs Hassium 108   Tc Technetium 43
He Helium 2   Te Tellurium 52
Ho Holmium 67   Tb Terbium 65
H Hydrogen 1   Tl Thallium 81
In Indium 49   Th Thorium 90
I Iodine 53   Tm Thulium 69
Ir Iridium 77   Sn Tin 50
Fe Iron 26   Ti Titanium 22
Kr Krypton 36   W Tungsten 74
La Lanthanum 57   U Uranium 92
Lr Lawrencium 103   V Vanadium 23
Pb Lead 82   Xe Xenon 54
Li Lithium 3   Yb Ytterbium 70
Lu Lutetium 71   Y Yttrium 39
Mg Magnesium 12   Zn Zinc 30
Mn Manganese 25   Zr Zirconium 40
Mt Meitnerium 109   - - -

 

11.15 THE COMPLETE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE

The full Modern Periodic Table is presented twice below, with and without the elements electron configuration

Pd s block 3d to 6d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4 to 7), note that the 1st (d1) and 10th (d10) are NOT true transition elements. p block
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1

1H   Note: (i) H does not readily fit into any group, (ii) He not strictly a 'p' element but does belong in Gp 0

2He
2 3Li 4Be The full IUPAC modern Periodic Table of Elements (ZSymbol, z = atomic or proton number) 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba *57-71 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
7 87Fr 88Ra *89-103 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cp 113? 114? 115? 116? 117? 118?
Gp 1 Alkali Metals

Gp 2 Alkaline Earth Metals

Gp 7/17 Halogens

Gp 0/18 Noble Gases

Take note of the four points on the right

 
*57La 58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
*89Ac 90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr

*Horizontal insert in Period 6 of the Lanthanide Metal Series (Lanthanides/Lanthanoids) Z=57 to 71 including the 4f-block series. *Horizontal insert in Period 7 of the Actinide Series of Metals (Actinides/Actinoids) Z=89-103 including the 5f-block series.

  1. Using 0 to denote the Group number of the Noble Gases is historic i.e. when its valency was considered zero since no compounds were known. However, from 1961 stable compounds of xenon have been synthesised exhibiting up to the maximum possible valency of 8 e.g. in XeO4.

  2. Because of the horizontal series of elements e.g. like the Sc to Zn block (10 elements), Groups 3 to 7 and 0 can also be numbered as Groups 13 to 18 to fit in with the maximum number of vertical columns of elements in periods 4 and 5 (18 elements per period 4 and period 5).

  3. This means that 21Sc to 30Zn can be now considered as the top elements in the vertical Groups 3 to 12.

  4. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and LinksI'm afraid this can make things confusing, but there it is, classification is still in progress and the notation Group 1 to 18 seems due to become universal.

*
Pd s block 3d/4d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4/5), the 1st/10th are NOT true transition elements, they have no partially filled d shell in an ion. p block elements
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1

1H 1s1

2He 1s2
2 3Li [He]2s1 4Be [He]2s2 The electronic structure of Elements 1 to 56, ZSymbol, Z = atomic or proton number = total electrons in neutral atom, [He] = 1s2, [Ne] = 1s22s22p6, [Ar] = 1s22s22p63s23p6, [Kr] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

Between Groups 2 and 3 (13) are the d-blocks and f-blocks where the quantum energy level rules permit their inclusion and electron filling. Periods 4 and 5 have 18 elements each, including the 3d and 4d blocks of elements respectively.

5B [He]2s22p1 6C [He]2s22p2 7N [He]2s22p3 8O [He]2s22p4 9F [He]2s22p5 10Ne [He]2s22p6
3 11Na [Ne]3s1 12Mg [Ne]3s2 13Al [Ne]3s23p1 14Si [Ne]3s23p2 15P [Ne]3s23p3 16S [Ne]3s23p4 17Cl [Ne]3s23p5 18Ar [Ne]3s23p6
4 19K [Ar]4s1 20Ca [Ar]4s2 21Sc [Ar] 3d14s2 22Ti [Ar] 3d24s2 23V [Ar] 3d34s2 24Cr [Ar] 3d54s1 25Mn [Ar] 3d54s2 26Fe [Ar] 3d64s2 27Co [Ar] 3d74s2 28Ni [Ar] 3d84s2 29Cu [Ar] 3d104s1 30Zn [Ar] 3d104s2 31Ga [Ar] 3d104s24p1 32Ge [Ar] 3d104s24p2 33As [Ar] 3d104s24p3 34Se [Ar] 3d104s24p4 35Br [Ar] 3d104s24p5 36Kr [Ar] 3d104s24p6
5 37Rb [Kr]5s1 38Sr [Kr]5s2 39Y [Kr] 4d15s2 40Zr [Kr] 4d25s2 41Nb [Kr] 4d45s1 42Mo [Kr] 4d55s1 43Tc [Kr] 4d55s2 44Ru [Kr] 4d75s1 45Rh [Kr] 4d85s1 46Pd [Kr] 4d10 47Ag [Kr] 4d105s1 48Cd [Kr] 4d105s2 49In [Kr] 4d105s25p1 50Sn [Kr] 4d105s25p2 51Sb [Kr] 4d105s25p3 52Te [Kr] 4d105s25p4 53I [Kr] 4d105s25p5 54Xe [Kr] 4d105s25p6
6 55Cs [Xe]6s1 56Ba [Xe]6s2 4f-block (14) and 5d-block (10) 32 elements in period 6 including the Lanthanide Series of Metals. 81Tl [Xe] 5d106s26p1 82Pb [Xe] 5d106s26p2 83Bi [Xe] 5d106s26p3 84Po [Xe] 5d106s26p4 85At [Xe] 5d106s26p5 86Rn [Xe] 5d106s26p6
7 87Fr [Rn]7s1 88Ra [Rn]7s2 5f-block and 6d-block including the Actinide Series of Metals.            

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links

WHAT NEXT?

INORGANIC Part 11 Data page sub-index: 11.1 Notes about the data * 11.2 Periodicity Plots * 11.3 Group 1 Alkali Metals * 11.4 Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals * 11.5 Transition Metals * 11.6 Group 3 (13) * 11.7 Group 4 (14) * 11.8 Group 5 (15) * 11.9 Group 6 (16) * 11.10 Group 7 (17) Halogens * 11.11 Group 0 (18) Noble Gases * 11.12 Full Periodic Table * 11.13 Periods 1 to 4 Data Tables * 11.14 Alphabetical Element name list with symbol and atomic number Z and 11.15 The full modern Period Table

Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index * Part 1 Periodic Table history * Part 2 Electron configurations, spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, ionisation energies * Part 3 Period 1 survey H to He * Part 4 Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part 5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar * Part 6 Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends down a group * Part 7 s-block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals * Part 8  p-block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 * Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens * Part 10 3d block elements & Transition Metal Series * Part 11 Group & Series data & periodicity plots * All 11 Parts have their own sub-indexes near the top of the pages

A level Inorganic Chemistry Group 7 Halogens Periodic Table Revision notes for GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level AS Advanced Level A2 IB Revise AQA GCE Chemistry OCR GCE Chemistry Edexcel GCE Chemistry Salters Chemistry CIE Chemistry, WJEC GCE AS A2 Chemistry, CCEA/CEA GCE AS A2 Chemistry revising courses for pre-university students (equal to US grade 11 and grade 12 and AP Honours/honors level courses)

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