INORGANIC Part 2
subindex: 2.1
The electronic basis of the modern Periodic Table * 2.2
The electronic structure of atoms (including s p d f
subshells/orbitals/notation) * 2.3 Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1
to 56) * 2.4 Electron configuration and the
Periodic Table * 2.5 Electron configuration of
ions and oxidation states * 2.6 Spectroscopy and
the hydrogen spectrum * 2.7 Evidence of quantum
levels from ionisation energies
Advanced
Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index *
Part 1
Periodic Table history
* Part 2
Electron configurations, spectroscopy,
hydrogen spectrum,
ionisation energies *
Part 3
Period 1 survey H to He *
Part 4
Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part
5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar *
Part 6
Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends
down a group *
Part 7
sblock Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals *
Part 8
pblock Groups 3/13 to 0/18 *
Part 9
Group 7/17 The Halogens *
Part 10
3d block elements & Transition Metal Series
*
Part 11
Group & Series data & periodicity plots * All
11 Parts have
their own subindexes near the top of the pages
2.3
List of the Electronic Configuration of Elements 1 to 56 using the
advanced notation
YOU MUST STUDY Parts 2.1 and 2.2
before studying 2.3  The rules of how to assign
electrons in multielectron atoms to the appropriate quantum levels
were explained in section 2.2. The list
below quotes the ground
state electron configurations i.e. the lowest available state
according to the Aufbau principle
(previously described).
Electron Box diagrams of
the outer electron arrangement and examples of the simple electron
notation (e.g. 2.8.1) are also included, with brief comments
in the end right hand column e.g. element symbol, group, series
etc. The electronsinboxes notation for subshells: Boxes are used to represent an individual orbital or set of
orbitals in the electrons are shown as arrows. The pairs up/down
arrows represent a full orbital with electrons of opposite spin and
note how the halffilled boxes/orbitals illustrate Hund's rule of
maximum multiplicity.
The energy level filling
order up to Z = 56 is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
4p (for Z = 1 to 36) 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f/5d? (for Z = 37 to
56)
However, when writing out the
electron configuration you must write them out in order of
strict principal quantum with the accompanying s, p, d, f notation
i.e. the order 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 6s (upto Z = 58)
Atomic
number Z and the element name and symbol 
Electron configuration
s, p, d & f notation with electron
number superscripts (plus some simplified electron arrangements) 
Box diagram of outer
electron orbitals
representing the superscripted electrons beyond
the inner noble gas core [He/Ne/Ar/Kr], the latter are
not involved in chemical bonding/reactions. 
Symbol,
group/series/block and Comments 
1
Hydrogen, H 
1s^{1} 
1s 
H, no
Gp really, a bit unique! 
2
Helium, He 
1s^{2} = [He] 
1s
very stable 
He, Gp
0/18 Noble Gas, 
3
Lithium, Li 
1s^{2}2s^{1}
(simple notation: 2.1) 
[He]2s2p 
Li,
sblock, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
4
Beryllium, Be 
1s^{2}2s^{2}
(2.2) 
[He]2s2p 
Be,
sblock, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
5 Boron, B 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{1}
(2.3) 
[He]2s2p 
B,
pblock, Gp3/13 
6
Carbon, C 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{2}
(2.4) 
[He]2s2p 
C,
pblock, Gp4/14, 
7
Nitrogen, N 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{3}
(2.5) 
[He]2s2p 
N,
pblock, Gp5/15, 
8
Oxygen, O 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{4}
(2.6) 
[He]2s2p 
O,
pblock, Gp6/16, 
9
Fluorine, F 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{5}
(2.7) 
[He]2s2p 
F,
pblock, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
10 Neon, Ne 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6} = [Ne]
(2.8) 
[He]2s2p
very stable 
Ne,
pblock, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
11
Sodium, Na 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{1}
(2.8.1) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Na, Gp1
Alkali Metal, 
12
Magnesium, Mg 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}
(2.8.2) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Mg,
sblock, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
13
Aluminium, Al 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{1}
(2.8.3) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Al,
pblock, Gp3/13, 
14
Silicon, Si 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{2}
(2.8.4) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Si,
pblock, Gp4/14, 
15
Phosphorus, P 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{3}
(2.8.5) 
[Ne]3s3p 
P,
pblock, Gp5/15, 
16
Sulphur, S 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{4}
(2.8.6) 
[Ne]3s3p 
S,
pblock, Gp6/16, 
17
Chlorine, Cl 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{5}
(2.8.7) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Cl,
pblock, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
18
Argon, Ar 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}
= [Ar] (2.8.8) 
[Ne]3s3p
very stable 
Ar,
pblock, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
19
Potassium, K 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}4s^{1}
(2.8.8.1) 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
K,
sblock, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
20
Calcium, Ca 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}4s^{2}
(2.8.8.1) 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ca,
sblock, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
21
Scandium, Sc 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{1}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Sc, 3d
block, not true Transition Metal 
22
Titanium, Ti 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{2}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ti, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
23
Vanadium, V 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{3}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
V, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
24
Chromium, Cr 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{5}4s^{1} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Cr, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
25
Manganese, Mn 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{5}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Mn, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
26 Iron, Fe 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{6}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Fe, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
27
Cobalt, Co 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{7}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Co, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
28
Nickel, Ni 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{8}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ni, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
29
Copper, Cu 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{1} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Cu, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
30 Zinc, Zn 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Zn, 3d
block, not true Transition Metal 
31
Gallium, Ga 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{1} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ga,
pblock, Gp3/13, 
32
Germanium, Ge 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ge,
pblock, Gp4/14, 
33
Arsenic, As 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{3} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
As,
pblock, Gp5/15, 
34
Selenium, Se 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{4} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Se,
pblock, Gp6/16, 
35
Bromine, Br 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{5} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Br,
pblock, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
36
Krypton, Kr 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}
= [Kr] (2.8.18.8) 
[Ar]3d4s4p
v. stable 
Kr,
pblock, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
37
Rubidium, Rb 
[Kr]5s^{1} 
[Kr]5s 
Rb,
sblock, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
38
Strontium, Sr 
[Kr]5s^{2} 
[Kr]5s 
Sr,
sblock, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
39
Yttrium, Y 
[Kr]4d^{1}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Y, 4d block, not true Transition Metal 
40
Zirconium, Zr 
[Kr]4d^{2}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Zr, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
41
Niobium, Nb 
[Kr]4d^{4}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Nb, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
42
Molybdenum, Mo 
[Kr]4d^{5}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Mo, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
43
Technetium, Tc 
[Kr]4d^{5}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Tc, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
44
Ruthenium, Ru 
[Kr]4d^{7}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Ru, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
45
Rhodium, Rh 
[Kr]4d^{8}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Rh, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
46
Palladium, Pd 
[Kr]4d^{10} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Pd, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
47
Silver, Ag 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Ag, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
48
Cadmium, Cd 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Cd, 4d
block, not true Transition Metal 
49
Indium, In 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
In,
pblock, Gp3/13, 
50 Tin, Sn 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Sn,
pblock, Gp4/14, 
51
Antimony, Sb 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{3} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Sb,
pblock, Gp5/14, 
52
Tellurium, Te 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{4} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Te,
pblock, Gp6/16, 
53
Iodine, I 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{5} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
I,
pblock, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
54
Xenon, Xe 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6}
= [Xe] 
[Kr]4d5s5p
v. stable 
Xe,
pblock, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
55
Caesium, Cs 
[Xe]6s^{1} 
[Xe]6s 
Cs,
sblock, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
56
Barium, Ba 
[Xe]6s^{2} 
[Xe]6s 
Ba,
sblock, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,

57 Lanthanum, La 
[Xe]5d^{1}6s^{2} 
[Xe]5d6s 
La, start of 5dbock and Lanthanide Series 
58 Cerium, Ce 
[Xe]4f^{2}6s^{2} not 4f^{1}5d^{1}6s^{2} 
things get a bit less systematic in
the f blocks 
Ce, 1st of fblock in the Lanthanides Metals 
************************** 
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2.4 Electron
configuration and the Periodic Table
Not all the elements
are shown but the position of s, p, d and f blocks are shown and
explained after the table
Pd 
s block 
3d/4d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4/5), the 1st/10th
are NOT true
transition elements, they have no partially filled d shell in an
ion. 
p block
elements 
Gp1 
Gp2 
Gp3/13 
Gp4/14 
Gp5/15 
Gp6/16 
Gp7/17 
Gp0/18 
1 
_{1}H 1s^{1}

_{2}He 1s^{2} 
2 
_{3}Li [He]2s^{1} 
_{4}Be [He]2s^{2} 
The electronic structure of Elements
1 to 56, _{Z}Symbol,
Z = atomic or proton
number = total electrons in neutral atom,
[He] = 1s^{2}, [Ne] = 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6},
[Ar] = 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}, [Kr] = 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}
Between Groups 2 and 3 (13)
are the dblocks and fblocks where the quantum energy level
rules permit their inclusion and electron filling. Periods 4 and
5 have 18 elements each, including the
3d and 4d blocks
of elements
respectively (Groups 3 to 12  new notation). 
_{5}B [He]2s^{2}2p^{1} 
_{6}C [He]2s^{2}2p^{2} 
_{7}N [He]2s^{2}2p^{3} 
_{8}O [He]2s^{2}2p^{4} 
_{9}F [He]2s^{2}2p^{5} 
_{10}Ne [He]2s^{2}2p^{6} 
3 
_{11}Na [Ne]3s^{1} 
_{12}Mg [Ne]3s^{2} 
_{13}Al [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{1} 
_{14}Si [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{2} 
_{15}P [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{3} 
_{16}S [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{4} 
_{17}Cl [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{5} 
_{
18}Ar [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{6} 
4 
_{19}K [Ar]4s^{1} 
_{20}Ca [Ar]4s^{2} 
_{21}Sc [Ar] 3d^{1}4s^{2} 
_{22}Ti [Ar] 3d^{2}4s^{2} 
_{23}V [Ar] 3d^{3}4s^{2} 
_{24}Cr [Ar] 3d^{5}4s^{1} 
_{25}Mn [Ar] 3d^{5}4s^{2} 
_{26}Fe [Ar] 3d^{6}4s^{2} 
_{27}Co [Ar] 3d^{7}4s^{2} 
_{28}Ni [Ar] 3d^{8}4s^{2} 
_{29}Cu [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{1} 
_{30}Zn [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2} 
_{31}Ga [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{1} 
_{32}Ge [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{2} 
_{33}As [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{3} 
_{34}Se [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{4} 
_{35}Br [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{5} 
_{36}Kr [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6} 
5 
_{37}Rb [Kr]5s^{1} 
_{38}Sr [Kr]5s^{2} 
_{39}Y [Kr] 4d^{1}5s^{2} 
_{40}Zr [Kr] 4d^{2}5s^{2} 
_{41}Nb [Kr] 4d^{4}5s^{1} 
_{42}Mo [Kr] 4d^{5}5s^{1} 
_{43}Tc [Kr] 4d^{5}5s^{2} 
_{44}Ru [Kr] 4d^{7}5s^{1} 
_{45}Rh [Kr] 4d^{8}5s^{1} 
_{46}Pd [Kr] 4d^{10} 
_{47}Ag [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{1} 
_{48}Cd [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2} 
_{49}In [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{1} 
_{50}Sn [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{2} 
_{51}Sb [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{3} 
_{52}Te [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{4} 
_{53}I [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{5} 
_{54}Xe [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6} 
6 
_{
55}Cs [Xe]6s^{1} 
_{
56}Ba [Xe]6s^{2} 
4fblock (14) and 5dblock
(10) 32 elements in period 6 including the Lanthanide Series of
Metals. 
_{81}Tl [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{1} 
_{82}Pb [Xe]
5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{2} 
_{83}Bi [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{3} 
_{84}Po [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{4} 
_{
85}At [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{5} 
_{
86}Rn [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{6} 
7 
_{87}Fr [Rn]7s^{1} 
_{
88}Ra [Rn]7s^{2} 
5fblock and 6dblock
including the Actinide Series of Metals. 







Note on Group numbers:
Using 0 to denote the Group number of Noble Gases is very historic now
since compounds of xenon known exhibiting a valency of 8.

Because of the horizontal series
of elements e.g. like the Sc to Zn block (10 elements), Groups 3 to
0 can also be numbered as Groups 13 to 18 to fit in with the
actual number of vertical columns of elements.

This can make things confusing, but there
it is, classification is still in progress!

The atomic/proton
number, decides which element an atom is and the outer electron
structure decides which group/block/series the element belongs to and
ultimately its chemistry.

The s p d
f blocks are shown in the Periodic Table above.

The most stable
electron configurations

What is the electronic
basis of Groups of
elements?  their 'electronic classification'

For groups 1 to 2, and
'old' 3 to 0/'new' notation 13 to 18 (except He), all the elements
in the same vertical column have the same outer electron
configuration and therefore will be expected to have a very similar
chemistry.

For the d blocks of
Groups 3 to 12, using the 'new' group number notation, the vertical 'group'
connection of similar outer electron configuration is
consistent except for V/Nb, Fe/Ru, Co/Rh, Ni/Pd where the 3d/4s and
4d/5s pairs of levels are of very similar energy and small differences in outer
electron configuration occur.

What
is the electronic basis for the 'series of elements'?  their 'electronic classification'

The '1st
Transition Metals Series' from Sc to Zn, and other 'horizontal blocks' are sometimes called
a 'series' but they are better described as the '3d block' or '3d
series of elements' (and, 4d block, 4f block  filling of 4f
subshell etc.), but a horizontal row of elements, unlike the
vertical columns of the eight vertical groups.

What is the overall
electronic basis for blocks of
elements across the whole of the periodic table?

The sblock
consists of Groups 1 and 2 where the only outer electrons are in an s
subenergy level orbital (no outer p electrons, 2 per period).

The pblock
corresponds to Groups 3 to 0 (old notation) or Groups 13 to 18 (new
notation) where the three p subenergy level orbitals are being
filled (6 per period).

Starting with
period 4, where the first of the d subshells is low enough in energy
to be filled, there are ten elements 'inserted' between groups 2 and
3, the socalled d blocks of ten elements (the 1st block, the
3d block ScZn is on Period 4).

Therefore Sc to Zn form
the head elements of Groups 3 to 12 using the 'new' group number
notation.

Similarly on period 5 there is a 4d block
where the 4d subshell level is filled.

So 10 d block elements per
period are now permitted\under the quantum number rules.

Starting with
cerium (Z=58, period 6), see in full table below, there is a further
insertion of fourteen elements where the seven forbital subshell is
being filled after the first of the dblock metals and similarly with
thorium (Z=90) in period 7 and these are known as the f blocks
(14 per period where permitted).

The
full Periodic Table is shown below without the
electron configurations, but including the new/old group number
notation.
Pd 
sblock
metals 
3d to
6d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4
to 7), note that the 1st (d^{1}) and 10th (d^{10}) are NOT true
transition elements. 
pblock
nonmetals and metals 
Gp1 
Gp2 
Gp3/*13 
Gp4/*14 
Gp5/*15 
Gp6/*16 
Gp7/*17 
Gp0/*18 
1 
_{1}H Note: (i) H does not readily
fit into any group, (ii) He not strictly a 'p' element but does
belong in Gp
0/18

_{2}He 
2 
_{3}Li 
_{4}Be 
Full IUPAC modern Periodic Table of Elements
_{Z}Symbol, z = atomic or proton
number 
_{5}B 
_{6}C 
_{7}N 
_{8}O 
_{9}F 
_{10}Ne 
3 
_{11}Na 
_{12}Mg 
*Gp3 
*Gp4 
*Gp5 
*Gp6 
*Gp7 
*Gp8 
*Gp9 
*Gp10 
*Gp11 
*Gp12 
_{13}Al 
_{14}Si 
_{15}P 
_{16}S 
_{17}Cl 
_{18}Ar 
4 
_{19}K 
_{20}Ca 
_{21}Sc 
_{22}Ti 
_{23}V 
_{24}Cr 
_{25}Mn 
_{26}Fe 
_{27}Co 
_{28}Ni 
_{29}Cu 
_{30}Zn 
_{31}Ga 
_{32}Ge 
_{33}As 
_{34}Se 
_{35}Br 
_{36}Kr 
5 
_{37}Rb 
_{38}Sr 
_{39}Y 
_{40}Zr 
_{41}Nb 
_{42}Mo 
_{43}Tc 
_{44}Ru 
_{45}Rh 
_{46}Pd 
_{47}Ag 
_{48}Cd 
_{49}In 
_{50}Sn 
_{51}Sb 
_{52}Te 
_{53}I 
_{54}Xe 
6 
_{55}Cs 
_{56}Ba 
_{57}La* 
_{72}Hf 
_{73}Ta 
_{74}W 
_{75}Re 
_{76}Os 
_{77}Ir 
_{78}Pt 
_{79}Au 
_{80}Hg 
_{81}Tl 
_{82}Pb 
_{83}Bi 
_{84}Po 
_{85}At 
_{86}Rn 
7 
_{87}Fr 
_{88}Ra 
_{89}Ac* 
_{104}Rf 
_{105}Db 
_{106}Sg 
_{107}Bh 
_{108}Hs 
_{109}Mt 
_{110}Ds 
_{111}Rg 
_{112}Cp 
_{113}? 
_{114}? 
_{115}? 
_{116}? 
_{117}? 
_{118}? 
Gp
1 Alkali Metals
Gp 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
Gp 7/17 Halogens
Gp 0/18 Noble Gases
Take note of the four
points on the right 

*_{57}La 
_{58}Ce 
_{59}Pr 
_{60}Nd 
_{61}Pm 
_{62}Sm 
_{63}Eu 
_{64}Gd 
_{65}Tb 
_{66}Dy 
_{67}Ho 
_{68}Er 
_{69}Tm 
_{70}Yb 
_{71}Lu 
*_{89}Ac 
_{90}Th 
_{91}Pa 
_{92}U 
_{93}Np 
_{94}Pu 
_{95}Am 
_{96}Cm 
_{97}Bk 
_{98}Cf 
_{99}Es 
_{100}Fm 
_{101}Md 
_{102}No 
_{103}Lr 
*Horizontal insert
in Period
6 of the
Lanthanide
Metal Series (Lanthanides/Lanthanoids) Z=57 to 71
includes 4fblock
series (5871).
*Horizontal insert
in Period 7 of the
Actinide Series of Metals
(Actinides/Actinoids) Z=89103
including the
5fblock
series (90103). 

Using 0 to
denote the Group number of the Noble Gases is historic i.e. when its valency was
considered zero since no compounds were known. However, from
1961 stable compounds of
xenon have been synthesised exhibiting up to the maximum possible expected valency of 8
e.g. in XeO_{4}.

* _{21}Sc to _{30}Zn can be considered
as the top elements in the vertical Groups 3 to 12 (marked
as *Gp3 to *Gp12).

*Therefore
Groups 37 and 0 can also be numbered as
Groups 13 to 18 (marked as
*13,
*14,
*15,
*16,
*17 and
*18) to fit in with the maximum number of vertical columns of elements
in periods 4 and 5 (18 elements per period).

I'm afraid
this can make things confusing, but there
it is, classification is still in progress and the notation Group 1 to 18
seems due to become universal.

2.5
Electronic configuration of ions and oxidation states
SPECTROSCOPY, the
HYDROGEN SPECTRUM and IONISATION ENERGY PATTERNS
are on a separate page now
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keywordsnotation: 1s1
1s2
1s22s1
1s22s2
1s22s22p1
1s22s22p2
1s22s22p3
1s22s22p4
1s22s22p5
1s22s22p6
1s22s22p63s1
1s22s22p63s2
1s22s22p63s23p1
1s22s22p63s23p2
1s22s22p63s23p3
1s22s22p63s23p4
1s22s22p63s23p5
1s22s22p63s23p6
1s22s22p63s23p64s1
1s22s22p63s23p64s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1
1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2
[Ar]3d104s24p1
[Ar]3d104s24p2
[Ar]3d104s24p3
[Ar]3d104s24p4
[Ar]3d104s24p5
[Ar]3d104s24p6
[Kr]5s1
[Kr]5s2
[Kr]4d15s2
[Kr]4d25s2
[Kr]4d45s1
[Kr]4d55s1
[Kr]4d55s2
[Kr]4d75s1
[Kr]4d85s1
[Kr]4d10
[Kr]4d105s1
[Kr]4d105s2
[Kr]4d105s25p1
[Kr]4d105s25p2
[Kr]4d105s25p3
[Kr]4d105s25p4
[Kr]4d105s25p5
[Kr]4d105s25p6
[Xe]6s1
[Xe]6s2
[Xe]5d16s2
[Xe]4f26s2
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