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 Doc Brown's Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Revision Notes

 Part 2 Electronic Structure, Spectroscopy & Ionisation Energies

Electron Configurations of Elements

e.g. 26 Iron, Fe

1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2

[Ar]3d4s4p

Sections 2.3 Electron configurations for elements of atomic number Z = 1 to 56

Part 2.3 uses the rules on assigning electron arrangements, and how the quantum level notation is written out, and using boxes to represent orbitals, is given for elements Z = 1 to 56

2.4 The relationship between electron configuration and the Periodic Table

Part 2.4 uses the electron configurations to show how the Periodic Table arises, i.e. an element's position in the Periodic Table and hence its chemistry, is primarily determined by the arrangement of its outer valency electrons.

2.5 The electron configuration of ions and oxidation states

Part 2.5 shows how to work out the configuration of ions, (positive cations or negative anions formed by the loss or gain of valence electrons), and also, relating electron arrangements to the oxidation states exhibited by selected elements.


GCSE/IGCSE/AS Atomic Structure Notes  *  GCSE/IGCSE Periodic Table notes

 

INORGANIC Part 2 sub-index: 2.1 The electronic basis of the modern Periodic Table * 2.2 The electronic structure of atoms (including s p d f subshells/orbitals/notation) * 2.3 Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56) * 2.4 Electron configuration and the Periodic Table * 2.5 Electron configuration of ions and oxidation states * 2.6 Spectroscopy and the hydrogen spectrum * 2.7 Evidence of quantum levels from ionisation energies

Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index * Part 1 Periodic Table history * Part 2 Electron configurations, spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, ionisation energies * Part 3 Period 1 survey H to He * Part 4 Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part 5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar * Part 6 Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends down a group * Part 7 s-block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals * Part 8  p-block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 * Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens * Part 10 3d block elements & Transition Metal Series * Part 11 Group & Series data & periodicity plots * All 11 Parts have their own sub-indexes near the top of the pages


 2.3 List of the Electronic Configuration of Elements 1 to 56 using the advanced notation

YOU MUST STUDY Parts 2.1 and 2.2 before studying 2.3 - The rules of how to assign electrons in multi-electron atoms to the appropriate quantum levels were explained in section 2.2. The list below quotes the ground state electron configurations i.e. the lowest available state according to the Aufbau principle (previously described).

Electron Box diagrams of the outer electron arrangement and examples of the simple electron notation (e.g. 2.8.1) are also included, with brief comments in the end right hand column e.g. element symbol, group, series etc. The electrons-in-boxes notation for subshells: Boxes are used to represent an individual orbital or set of orbitals in the electrons are shown as arrows. The pairs up/down arrows represent a full orbital with electrons of opposite spin and note how the half-filled boxes/orbitals illustrate Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity.

The energy level filling order up to Z = 56 is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p (for Z = 1 to 36) 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f/5d? (for Z = 37 to 56)

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and LinksHowever, when writing out the electron configuration you must write them out in order of strict principal quantum with the accompanying s, p, d, f notation i.e. the order 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 6s (upto Z = 58)

Atomic number Z and the element name and symbol

Electron configuration

s, p, d & f notation with electron number superscripts (plus some simplified electron arrangements)

Box diagram of outer electron orbitals

representing the superscripted electrons beyond the inner noble gas core [He/Ne/Ar/Kr], the latter are not involved in chemical bonding/reactions.

Symbol, group/series/block and Comments

1 Hydrogen, H 1s1 1s H, no Gp really, a bit unique!
2 Helium, He 1s2 = [He] 1s very stable He, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas,
3 Lithium, Li 1s22s1 (simple notation: 2.1) [He]2s2p Li, s-block, Gp1 Alkali Metal,
4 Beryllium, Be 1s22s2 (2.2) [He]2s2p Be, s-block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,
5 Boron, B 1s22s22p1 (2.3) [He]2s2p B, p-block, Gp3/13
6 Carbon, C 1s22s22p2 (2.4) [He]2s2p C, p-block, Gp4/14,
7 Nitrogen, N 1s22s22p3 (2.5) [He]2s2p N, p-block, Gp5/15,
8 Oxygen, O 1s22s22p4 (2.6) [He]2s2p O, p-block, Gp6/16,
9 Fluorine, F 1s22s22p5 (2.7) [He]2s2p F, p-block, Gp7/17 Halogen,
10 Neon, Ne 1s22s22p6 = [Ne] (2.8) [He]2s2p very stable Ne, p-block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas,
11 Sodium, Na 1s22s22p63s1 (2.8.1) [Ne]3s3p Na, Gp1 Alkali Metal,
12 Magnesium, Mg 1s22s22p63s2 (2.8.2) [Ne]3s3p Mg, s-block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,
13 Aluminium, Al 1s22s22p63s23p1 (2.8.3) [Ne]3s3p Al, p-block, Gp3/13,
14 Silicon, Si 1s22s22p63s23p2 (2.8.4) [Ne]3s3p Si, p-block, Gp4/14,
15 Phosphorus, P 1s22s22p63s23p3 (2.8.5) [Ne]3s3p P, p-block, Gp5/15,
16 Sulphur, S 1s22s22p63s23p4 (2.8.6) [Ne]3s3p S, p-block, Gp6/16,
17 Chlorine, Cl 1s22s22p63s23p5 (2.8.7) [Ne]3s3p Cl, p-block, Gp7/17 Halogen,
18 Argon, Ar 1s22s22p63s23p6 = [Ar] (2.8.8) [Ne]3s3p very stable Ar, p-block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas,
19 Potassium, K 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 (2.8.8.1) [Ar]3d4s4p K, s-block, Gp1 Alkali Metal,
20 Calcium, Ca 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 (2.8.8.1) [Ar]3d4s4p Ca, s-block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,
21 Scandium, Sc 1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Sc, 3d block, not true Transition Metal
22 Titanium, Ti 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Ti, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
23 Vanadium, V 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2 [Ar]3d4s4p V, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
24 Chromium, Cr 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 [Ar]3d4s4p Cr, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
25 Manganese, Mn 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Mn, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
26 Iron, Fe 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Fe, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
27 Cobalt, Co 1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Co, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
28 Nickel, Ni 1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Ni, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
29 Copper, Cu 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1 [Ar]3d4s4p Cu, 3d block, a true Transition Metal
30 Zinc, Zn 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2 [Ar]3d4s4p Zn, 3d block, not true Transition Metal
31 Gallium, Ga [Ar]3d104s24p1 [Ar]3d4s4p Ga, p-block, Gp3/13,
32 Germanium, Ge [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Ar]3d4s4p Ge, p-block, Gp4/14,
33 Arsenic, As [Ar]3d104s24p3 [Ar]3d4s4p As, p-block, Gp5/15,
34 Selenium, Se [Ar]3d104s24p4 [Ar]3d4s4p Se, p-block, Gp6/16,
35 Bromine, Br [Ar]3d104s24p5 [Ar]3d4s4p Br, p-block, Gp7/17 Halogen,
36 Krypton, Kr [Ar]3d104s24p6 = [Kr] (2.8.18.8) [Ar]3d4s4p v. stable Kr, p-block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas,
37 Rubidium, Rb [Kr]5s1 [Kr]5s Rb, s-block, Gp1 Alkali Metal,
38 Strontium, Sr [Kr]5s2 [Kr]5s Sr, s-block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,
39 Yttrium, Y [Kr]4d15s2 [Kr]4d5s Y, 4d block, not true Transition Metal
40 Zirconium, Zr [Kr]4d25s2 [Kr]4d5s Zr, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
41 Niobium, Nb [Kr]4d45s1 [Kr]4d5s Nb, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
42 Molybdenum, Mo [Kr]4d55s1 [Kr]4d5s Mo, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
43 Technetium, Tc [Kr]4d55s2 [Kr]4d5s Tc, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
44 Ruthenium, Ru [Kr]4d75s1 [Kr]4d5s Ru, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
45 Rhodium, Rh [Kr]4d85s1 [Kr]4d5s Rh, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
46 Palladium, Pd [Kr]4d10 [Kr]4d5s Pd, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
47 Silver, Ag [Kr]4d105s1 [Kr]4d5s5p Ag, 4d block, a true Transition Metal
48 Cadmium, Cd [Kr]4d105s2 [Kr]4d5s5p Cd, 4d block, not true Transition Metal
49 Indium, In [Kr]4d105s25p1 [Kr]4d5s5p In, p-block, Gp3/13,
50 Tin, Sn [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Kr]4d5s5p Sn, p-block, Gp4/14, 
51 Antimony, Sb [Kr]4d105s25p3 [Kr]4d5s5p Sb, p-block, Gp5/14,
52 Tellurium, Te [Kr]4d105s25p4 [Kr]4d5s5p Te, p-block, Gp6/16,
53 Iodine, I [Kr]4d105s25p5 [Kr]4d5s5p I, p-block, Gp7/17 Halogen,
54 Xenon, Xe [Kr]4d105s25p6 = [Xe] [Kr]4d5s5p v. stable Xe, p-block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas,
55 Caesium, Cs [Xe]6s1 [Xe]6s Cs, s-block, Gp1 Alkali Metal,
56 Barium, Ba [Xe]6s2 [Xe]6s Ba, s-block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,
57 Lanthanum, La [Xe]5d16s2 [Xe]5d6s La, start of 5d-bock and Lanthanide Series
58 Cerium, Ce [Xe]4f26s2 not 4f15d16s2  things get a bit less systematic in the f blocks Ce, 1st of f-block in the Lanthanides Metals
************************** **************************************** ********************************************************** ***************************************************

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 2.4 Electron configuration and the Periodic Table

Not all the elements are shown but the position of s, p, d and f blocks are shown and explained after the table

Pd s block 3d/4d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4/5), the 1st/10th are NOT true transition elements, they have no partially filled d shell in an ion. p block elements
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3/13 Gp4/14 Gp5/15 Gp6/16 Gp7/17 Gp0/18
1

1H 1s1

2He 1s2
2 3Li [He]2s1 4Be [He]2s2 The electronic structure of Elements 1 to 56, ZSymbol, Z = atomic or proton number = total electrons in neutral atom, [He] = 1s2, [Ne] = 1s22s22p6, [Ar] = 1s22s22p63s23p6, [Kr] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

Between Groups 2 and 3 (13) are the d-blocks and f-blocks where the quantum energy level rules permit their inclusion and electron filling. Periods 4 and 5 have 18 elements each, including the 3d and 4d blocks of elements respectively (Groups 3 to 12 - new notation).

5B [He]2s22p1 6C [He]2s22p2 7N [He]2s22p3 8O [He]2s22p4 9F [He]2s22p5 10Ne [He]2s22p6
3 11Na [Ne]3s1 12Mg [Ne]3s2 13Al [Ne]3s23p1 14Si [Ne]3s23p2 15P [Ne]3s23p3 16S [Ne]3s23p4 17Cl [Ne]3s23p5 18Ar [Ne]3s23p6
4 19K [Ar]4s1 20Ca [Ar]4s2 21Sc [Ar] 3d14s2 22Ti [Ar] 3d24s2 23V [Ar] 3d34s2 24Cr [Ar] 3d54s1 25Mn [Ar] 3d54s2 26Fe [Ar] 3d64s2 27Co [Ar] 3d74s2 28Ni [Ar] 3d84s2 29Cu [Ar] 3d104s1 30Zn [Ar] 3d104s2 31Ga [Ar] 3d104s24p1 32Ge [Ar] 3d104s24p2 33As [Ar] 3d104s24p3 34Se [Ar] 3d104s24p4 35Br [Ar] 3d104s24p5 36Kr [Ar] 3d104s24p6
5 37Rb [Kr]5s1 38Sr [Kr]5s2 39Y [Kr] 4d15s2 40Zr [Kr] 4d25s2 41Nb [Kr] 4d45s1 42Mo [Kr] 4d55s1 43Tc [Kr] 4d55s2 44Ru [Kr] 4d75s1 45Rh [Kr] 4d85s1 46Pd [Kr] 4d10 47Ag [Kr] 4d105s1 48Cd [Kr] 4d105s2 49In [Kr] 4d105s25p1 50Sn [Kr] 4d105s25p2 51Sb [Kr] 4d105s25p3 52Te [Kr] 4d105s25p4 53I [Kr] 4d105s25p5 54Xe [Kr] 4d105s25p6
6 55Cs [Xe]6s1 56Ba [Xe]6s2 4f-block (14) and 5d-block (10) 32 elements in period 6 including the Lanthanide Series of Metals. 81Tl [Xe] 5d106s26p1 82Pb [Xe] 5d106s26p2 83Bi [Xe] 5d106s26p3 84Po [Xe] 5d106s26p4 85At [Xe] 5d106s26p5 86Rn [Xe] 5d106s26p6
7 87Fr [Rn]7s1 88Ra [Rn]7s2 5f-block and 6d-block including the Actinide Series of Metals.            
  • Note on Group numbers: Using 0 to denote the Group number of Noble Gases is very historic now since compounds of xenon known exhibiting a valency of 8.

    • Because of the horizontal series of elements e.g. like the Sc to Zn block (10 elements), Groups 3 to 0 can also be numbered as Groups 13 to 18 to fit in with the actual number of vertical columns of elements.

    • This can make things confusing, but there it is, classification is still in progress!

    • The atomic/proton number, decides which element an atom is and the outer electron structure decides which group/block/series the element belongs to and ultimately its chemistry.

    • The s p d f blocks are shown in the Periodic Table above.

  • The most stable electron configurations

    • When the outer s and p quantum levels (and any completely filled inner orbital quantum levels eg 3d or 4f) you get a particularly stable element with minimal chemical reactivity ie you get a Noble Gas element [simple electron notation in ()]

      • Z = 2, helium, 1s2 = [He] (2)

      • Z = 10, neon, 1s22s22p6 = [Ne] (2.8)

      • Z = 18, argon, 1s22s22p63s23p6 = [Ar] (2.8.8)

      • Z = 36, krypton, [Ar]3d104s24p6 = [Kr] (2.8.18.8)

      • Z = 54, xenon, [Kr]4d105s25p6 = [Xe]

      • Z = 86, radon, [Xe]5d106s26p6 =[Rn]

  • What is the electronic basis of Groups of elements? - their 'electronic classification'

    • For groups 1 to 2, and 'old' 3 to 0/'new' notation 13 to 18 (except He), all the elements in the same vertical column have the same outer electron configuration and therefore will be expected to have a very similar chemistry.

      • This gives the electronic basis for Mendeleev's brilliant conception of the periodic table, ie laying out all the elements in order of 'atomic weight' and lining them up to give vertical columns of chemically and physically similar elements.

    • For the d blocks of Groups 3 to 12, using the 'new' group number notation, the vertical 'group' connection of similar outer electron configuration is consistent except for V/Nb, Fe/Ru, Co/Rh, Ni/Pd where the 3d/4s and 4d/5s pairs of levels are of very similar energy and small differences in outer electron configuration occur.

      • Never-the-less these pairs of elements show strong similarities as part of the justification for denoting the Transition Metals plus Groups 4 to 0 as Groups 3 to 18.

  • Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and LinksWhat is the electronic basis for the 'series of elements'? - their 'electronic classification'

    • The '1st Transition Metals Series' from Sc to Zn, and other 'horizontal blocks' are sometimes called a 'series' but they are better described as the '3d block' or '3d series of elements' (and, 4d block, 4f block - filling of 4f sub-shell etc.), but a horizontal row of elements, unlike the vertical columns of the eight vertical groups.

      • Why is 'block' better than 'series'?

        • The reference to the electronic structure is very important, the word series is a bit vague!

        • Technically, scandium (Sc, Z = 21) and zinc (Zn, Z = 30), are NOT true transition metals BUT they are true 3d block elements!

  • What is the overall electronic basis for blocks of elements across the whole of the periodic table?

    • The s-block consists of Groups 1 and 2 where the only outer electrons are in an s sub-energy level orbital (no outer p electrons, 2 per period).

    • The p-block corresponds to Groups 3 to 0 (old notation) or Groups 13 to 18 (new notation) where the three p sub-energy level orbitals are being filled (6 per period).

    • Starting with period 4, where the first of the d sub-shells is low enough in energy to be filled, there are ten elements 'inserted' between groups 2 and 3, the so-called d blocks of ten elements (the 1st block, the 3d block Sc-Zn is on Period 4).

      • Therefore Sc to Zn form the head elements of Groups 3 to 12 using the 'new' group number notation.

      • Similarly on period 5 there is a 4d block where the 4d sub-shell level is filled.

      • So 10 d block elements per period are now permitted\under the quantum number rules.

    • Starting with cerium (Z=58, period 6), see in full table below, there is a further insertion of fourteen elements where the seven f-orbital sub-shell is being filled after the first of the d-block metals and similarly with thorium (Z=90) in period 7 and these are known as the f blocks (14 per period where permitted).

  • The full Periodic Table is shown below without the electron configurations, but including the new/old group number notation.

Pd s-block metals 3d to 6d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4 to 7), note that the 1st (d1) and 10th (d10) are NOT true transition elements. p-block non-metals and metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3/*13 Gp4/*14 Gp5/*15 Gp6/*16 Gp7/*17 Gp0/*18
1

1H   Note: (i) H does not readily fit into any group, (ii) He not strictly a 'p' element but does belong in Gp 0/18

2He
2 3Li 4Be Full IUPAC modern Periodic Table of Elements ZSymbol, z = atomic or proton number 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg *Gp3 *Gp4 *Gp5 *Gp6 *Gp7 *Gp8 *Gp9 *Gp10 *Gp11 *Gp12 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba 57La* 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
7 87Fr 88Ra 89Ac* 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cp 113? 114? 115? 116? 117? 118?
Gp 1 Alkali Metals

 Gp 2 Alkaline Earth Metals

Gp 7/17 Halogens

Gp 0/18 Noble Gases

Take note of the four points on the right

 
*57La 58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
*89Ac 90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr

*Horizontal insert in Period 6 of the Lanthanide Metal Series (Lanthanides/Lanthanoids) Z=57 to 71 includes 4f-block series (58-71).

*Horizontal insert in Period 7 of the Actinide Series of Metals (Actinides/Actinoids) Z=89-103 including the 5f-block series (90-103).

  1. Using 0 to denote the Group number of the Noble Gases is historic i.e. when its valency was considered zero since no compounds were known. However, from 1961 stable compounds of xenon have been synthesised exhibiting up to the maximum possible expected valency of 8 e.g. in XeO4.

  2. * 21Sc to 30Zn can be considered as the top elements in the vertical Groups 3 to 12 (marked as *Gp3 to *Gp12).

  3. *Therefore Groups 3-7 and 0 can also be numbered as Groups 13 to 18 (marked as *13, *14, *15, *16, *17 and *18) to fit in with the maximum number of vertical columns of elements in periods 4 and 5 (18 elements per period).

  4. I'm afraid this can make things confusing, but there it is, classification is still in progress and the notation Group 1 to 18 seems due to become universal.

  • Notes:

    1. The Noble Gases have been referred to as Group 0 because they were believed not to form compounds with other elements.

      • However, since 1961, many compounds of xenon have been prepared including xenon(VIII) oxide, XeO4, thus attaining the expected maximum possible oxidation state, so Group 18 seems most appropriate to use these days for advanced level courses.

    2. The d block elements are sometimes referred in terms of vertical columns as Groups 3 to 12, and the subsequent p-block group columns as Groups 13 to 18.

      • Whether this will become standard at pre-university level, I don't know? but I think its a bit confusing for school level chemistry below pre-university courses like UK GCSE or US grades 6-10.

  • The s p d f blocks are shown in the Periodic Table above.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Page Index and Links


 2.5 Electronic configuration of ions and oxidation states

  • The electron configuration of ions:

    • Beware in quoting the configurations for simple ions where, although the order of removal is basically the reverse of the order for filling the energy levels, there is one important exception you should know.

      • p electrons are remove before the s electrons for the same principal quantum number.

      • For d/transition blocks/series the 4s electrons are 'removed' before the 3d electrons and similarly the 5s electrons are 'removed' before the 4d electrons.

    • Positive ions are formed by electron loss and the order of removal is the reverse of the order the full electron configuration is written out e.g.

      • sodium atom Na = 1s22s22p63s1 , sodium ion Na+ = 1s22s22p6 = [Ne]

      • calcium atom is Ca = 1s22s22p63s23p64s2, calcium ion Ca2+ = 1s22s22p63s23p6 = [Ar]

      • iron atom Fe =  [Ar]3d64s2, iron(II) ion Fe2+ = [Ar]3d6, iron(III) ion Fe3+ = [Ar]3d5

      • germanium atom Ge = [Ar]3d104s24p2, germanium(II) ion Ge2+ = [Ar]3d104s2, germanium(IV) ion Ge4+ = [Ar]3d10

    • Negative ions are formed by electron gain and the filling order rule is continued e.g.

      • chlorine Cl = [Ne]3s23p5, chloride ion Cl- = [Ne]3s23p6 = [Ar]

      • oxygen: O = [He]2s22p4, oxide ion O2- = [He]2s22p6 = [Ne]

      • phosphorus: P = [Ne]3s23p3, phosphide ion P3- = [Ne]3s23p3 = [Ar]

      • Note the maximum negative oxidation state is governed by the number of electrons needed to complete a noble gas structure in the covalent or ionic bonding situation.

  • Oxidation state and electronic structure: For more details see also the notes on oxidation state and redox reactions.

    • The maximum oxidation state is often, but not always, limited by an inner full noble gas structure with or without a full d/f sub-shell.

    • The maximum oxidation state from Group 1 Alkali Metals (+1) to Group 0 Noble Gases (+8) is numerically equal to the number of outer electrons, i.e. those beyond an inner noble gas core or inner noble gas plus a full d/f sub-shell e.g.

      • Group 1, outer electron configuration s1, eg sodium is +1 in sodium chloride NaCl

      • Group 2, outer electron configuration s2, eg magnesium is +2 in magnesium oxide MgO

      • Group 3 (13), outer electron configuration s2p1, eg aluminium is +3 in aluminium fluoride AlF3

      • Group 4 (14), outer electron configuration s2p2, eg silicon is +4 in silicon dioxide SiO2

      • Group 5 (15), outer electron configuration s2p3, eg phosphorus is +5 in the phosphate(V) ion PO43-

      • Group 6 (16), outer electron configuration s2p4, eg sulphur is +6 in sulphur trioxide SO3

      • Group 7 (17), outer electron configuration s2p5, eg chlorine is +7 in the chlorate(VII) ion ClO4-

      • Group 0 (18), outer electron configuration s2p6 (except He), eg xenon is +8 in xenon tetraoxide (tetroxide), xenon(VIII) oxide XeO4

        • The maximum oxidation state pattern for the d blocks is a bit more complicated and the trend goes through a maximum e.g.

        • maximum oxidation states for the 3d block and transition Metal Series:

        • Sc (+3), Ti (+4), V (+5), Cr (+6), Mn (+7), Fe (+3, maybe +6?), Co (+3), Ni (+3), Cu (+3), Zn (+2)


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keywords-notation: 1s1 1s2 1s22s1 1s22s2 1s22s22p1 1s22s22p2 1s22s22p3 1s22s22p4 1s22s22p5 1s22s22p6 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p63s2 1s22s22p63s23p1 1s22s22p63s23p2 1s22s22p63s23p3 1s22s22p63s23p4 1s22s22p63s23p5 1s22s22p63s23p6 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2 [Ar]3d104s24p1 [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Ar]3d104s24p3 [Ar]3d104s24p4 [Ar]3d104s24p5 [Ar]3d104s24p6 [Kr]5s1 [Kr]5s2 [Kr]4d15s2 [Kr]4d25s2 [Kr]4d45s1 [Kr]4d55s1 [Kr]4d55s2 [Kr]4d75s1 [Kr]4d85s1 [Kr]4d10 [Kr]4d105s1 [Kr]4d105s2 [Kr]4d105s25p1 [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Kr]4d105s25p3 [Kr]4d105s25p4 [Kr]4d105s25p5 [Kr]4d105s25p6 [Xe]6s1 [Xe]6s2 [Xe]5d16s2 [Xe]4f26s2  

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