INORGANIC Part 2
sub–index: 2.1
The electronic basis of the modern Periodic Table * 2.2
The electronic structure of atoms (including s p d f
subshells/orbitals/notation) * 2.3 Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1
to 56) * 2.4 Electron configuration and the
Periodic Table * 2.5 Electron configuration of
ions and oxidation states * 2.6 Spectroscopy and
the hydrogen spectrum * 2.7 Evidence of quantum
levels from ionisation energies
Advanced
Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index *
Part 1
Periodic Table history
* Part 2
Electron configurations, spectroscopy,
hydrogen spectrum,
ionisation energies *
Part 3
Period 1 survey H to He *
Part 4
Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part
5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar *
Part 6
Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends
down a group *
Part 7
s–block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals *
Part 8
p–block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 *
Part 9
Group 7/17 The Halogens *
Part 10
3d block elements & Transition Metal Series
*
Part 11
Group & Series data & periodicity plots * All
11 Parts have
their own sub–indexes near the top of the pages
2.3
List of the Electronic Configuration of Elements 1 to 56 using the
advanced notation
What are the electron configuration
(electron arrangement) of 1
Hydrogen, H 2
Helium, He 3
Lithium, Li 4
Beryllium, Be 5 Boron, B 6
Carbon, C v 7
Nitrogen, N 8
Oxygen, O 9
Fluorine, F 10 Neon, Ne 11
Sodium, Na 12
Magnesium, Mg 13
Aluminium, Al 14
Silicon, Si 15
Phosphorus, P 16
Sulphur, S 17
Chlorine, Cl 18
Argon, Ar 19
Potassium, K 20
Calcium, Ca 21
Scandium, Sc 22
Titanium, Ti 23
Vanadium, V 24
Chromium, Cr 25
Manganese, Mn 26 Iron, Fe 27
Cobalt, Co 28
Nickel, Ni 29
Copper, Cu 30 Zinc, Zn 31
Gallium, Ga 32
Germanium, Ge 33
Arsenic, As 34
Selenium, Se 35
Bromine, Br 36
Krypton, Kr 37
Rubidium, Rb 38
Strontium, Sr 39
Yttrium, Y 40
Zirconium, Zr 41
Niobium, Nb 42
Molybdenum, Mo 43
Technetium, Tc 44
Ruthenium, Ru 45
Rhodium, Rh 46
Palladium, Pd 47
Silver, Ag 48
Cadmium, Cd 49
Indium, In 50 Tin, Sn 51
Antimony, Sb 52
Tellurium, Te 53
Iodine, I 54
Xenon, Xe 55
Caesium, Cs 56
Barium, Ba 57 Lanthanum, La 58 Cerium, Ce
YOU MUST STUDY Parts 2.1 and 2.2
before studying 2.3 – The rules of how to assign
electrons in multi–electron atoms to the appropriate quantum levels
were explained in section 2.2.
The list
below quotes the ground
state electron configurations i.e. the lowest available state
according to the Aufbau principle
(previously described).
Electron Box diagrams of
the outer electron arrangement and examples of the simple electron
notation (e.g. 2.8.1) are also included, with brief comments
in the end right hand column e.g. element symbol, group, series
etc. The electrons–in–boxes notation for subshells: Boxes are
used to represent an individual orbital or set of orbitals in the
electrons are shown as arrows. The pairs up/down arrows represent a
full orbital with electrons of opposite spin and note how the
half–filled boxes/orbitals illustrate Hund's rule of maximum
multiplicity
Energy level filling
order up to Z = 56 is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
4p (for Z = 1 to 36) then 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f/5d? (for Z = 37 to
56)
However, when writing out the
electron configuration you must write them out in order of
strict principal quantum with the accompanying s, p, d, f notation
i.e. the order 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 6s (upto Z = 58)
Atomic
number Z and the element
name and chemical symbol 
Electron configuration
Electron arrangements
s, p, d & f notation with electron
number superscripts (plus some simplified electron arrangements) 
Box diagram of outer
electron orbitals for the electron configuration of the atom representing the superscripted electrons beyond
the inner noble gas core [He/Ne/Ar/Kr], the latter are
not involved in chemical bonding/reactions. 
Symbol,
group/series/block and Comments 
1
Hydrogen, H 
1s^{1} 
1s 
H, no
Gp really, a bit unique! 
2
Helium, He 
1s^{2} = [He] 
1s
very stable 
He, Gp
0/18 Noble Gas, 
3
Lithium, Li 
1s^{2}2s^{1}
(simple notation: 2.1) 
[He]2s2p 
Li,
s–block, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
4
Beryllium, Be 
1s^{2}2s^{2}
(2.2) 
[He]2s2p 
Be,
s–block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
5 Boron, B 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{1}
(2.3) 
[He]2s2p 
B,
p–block, Gp3/13 
6
Carbon, C 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{2}
(2.4) 
[He]2s2p 
C,
p–block, Gp4/14, 
7
Nitrogen, N 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{3}
(2.5) 
[He]2s2p 
N,
p–block, Gp5/15, 
8
Oxygen, O 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{4}
(2.6) 
[He]2s2p 
O,
p–block, Gp6/16, 
9
Fluorine, F 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{5}
(2.7) 
[He]2s2p 
F,
p–block, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
10 Neon, Ne 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6} = [Ne]
(2.8) 
[He]2s2p
very stable 
Ne,
p–block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
11
Sodium, Na 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{1}
(2.8.1) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Na, Gp1
Alkali Metal, 
12
Magnesium, Mg 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}
(2.8.2) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Mg,
s–block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
13
Aluminium, Al 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{1}
(2.8.3) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Al,
p–block, Gp3/13, 
14
Silicon, Si 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{2}
(2.8.4) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Si,
p–block, Gp4/14, 
15
Phosphorus, P 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{3}
(2.8.5) 
[Ne]3s3p 
P,
p–block, Gp5/15, 
16
Sulphur, S 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{4}
(2.8.6) 
[Ne]3s3p 
S,
p–block, Gp6/16, 
17
Chlorine, Cl 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{5}
(2.8.7) 
[Ne]3s3p 
Cl,
p–block, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
18
Argon, Ar 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}
= [Ar] (2.8.8) 
[Ne]3s3p
very stable 
Ar,
p–block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
19
Potassium, K 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}4s^{1}
(2.8.8.1) 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
K,
s–block, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
20
Calcium, Ca 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}4s^{2}
(2.8.8.1) 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ca,
s–block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
21
Scandium, Sc 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{1}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Sc, 3d
block, not true Transition Metal 
22
Titanium, Ti 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{2}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ti, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
23
Vanadium, V 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{3}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
V, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
24
Chromium, Cr 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{5}4s^{1} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Cr, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
25
Manganese, Mn 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{5}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Mn, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
26 Iron, Fe 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{6}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Fe, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
27
Cobalt, Co 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{7}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Co, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
28
Nickel, Ni 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{8}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ni, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
29
Copper, Cu 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{1} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Cu, 3d
block, a true Transition Metal 
30 Zinc, Zn 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Zn, 3d
block, not true Transition Metal 
31
Gallium, Ga 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{1} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ga,
p–block, Gp3/13, 
32
Germanium, Ge 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{2} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Ge,
p–block, Gp4/14, 
33
Arsenic, As 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{3} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
As,
p–block, Gp5/15, 
34
Selenium, Se 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{4} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Se,
p–block, Gp6/16, 
35
Bromine, Br 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{5} 
[Ar]3d4s4p 
Br,
p–block, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
36
Krypton, Kr 
[Ar]3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}
= [Kr] (2.8.18.8) 
[Ar]3d4s4p
v. stable 
Kr,
p–block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
37
Rubidium, Rb 
[Kr]5s^{1} 
[Kr]5s 
Rb,
s–block, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
38
Strontium, Sr 
[Kr]5s^{2} 
[Kr]5s 
Sr,
s–block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal, 
39
Yttrium, Y 
[Kr]4d^{1}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Y, 4d block, not true Transition Metal 
40
Zirconium, Zr 
[Kr]4d^{2}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Zr, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
41
Niobium, Nb 
[Kr]4d^{4}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Nb, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
42
Molybdenum, Mo 
[Kr]4d^{5}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Mo, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
43
Technetium, Tc 
[Kr]4d^{5}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Tc, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
44
Ruthenium, Ru 
[Kr]4d^{7}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Ru, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
45
Rhodium, Rh 
[Kr]4d^{8}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Rh, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
46
Palladium, Pd 
[Kr]4d^{10} 
[Kr]4d5s 
Pd, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
47
Silver, Ag 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Ag, 4d
block, a true Transition Metal 
48
Cadmium, Cd 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Cd, 4d
block, not true Transition Metal 
49
Indium, In 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{1} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
In,
p–block, Gp3/13, 
50 Tin, Sn 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{2} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Sn,
p–block, Gp4/14, 
51
Antimony, Sb 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{3} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Sb,
p–block, Gp5/14, 
52
Tellurium, Te 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{4} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
Te,
p–block, Gp6/16, 
53
Iodine, I 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{5} 
[Kr]4d5s5p 
I,
p–block, Gp7/17 Halogen, 
54
Xenon, Xe 
[Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6}
= [Xe] 
[Kr]4d5s5p
v. stable 
Xe,
p–block, Gp 0/18 Noble Gas, 
55
Caesium, Cs 
[Xe]6s^{1} 
[Xe]6s 
Cs,
s–block, Gp1 Alkali Metal, 
56
Barium, Ba 
[Xe]6s^{2} 
[Xe]6s 
Ba,
s–block, Gp2 Alkaline Earth Metal,

57 Lanthanum, La 
[Xe]5d^{1}6s^{2} 
[Xe]5d6s 
La, start of 5d–bock and Lanthanide Series 
58 Cerium, Ce 
[Xe]4f^{2}6s^{2} not 4f^{1}5d^{1}6s^{2} 
things get a bit less systematic in
the f blocks 
Ce, 1st of f–block in the Lanthanides Metals 
************************ 
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2.4 Electron
configuration and the Periodic Table
Not all the elements
are shown but the position of s, p, d and f blocks are shown and
explained after the table
This partial periodic
table relates an element's electron configuration to the element's
position in the periodic table.
You can then see the
patterns between an atom's electron arrangement and the group, block or
series the element belongs to.
Pd 
s block 
3d/4d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4/5), the 1st/10th
are NOT true
transition elements, they have no partially filled d shell in an
ion. 
p block
elements 
Gp1 
Gp2 
Gp3/13 
Gp4/14 
Gp5/15 
Gp6/16 
Gp7/17 
Gp0/18 
1 
_{1}H 1s^{1}

_{2}He 1s^{2} 
2 
_{3}Li [He]2s^{1} 
_{4}Be [He]2s^{2} 
The electronic structure of Elements
1 to 56, _{Z}Symbol,
Z = atomic or proton
number = total electrons in neutral atom,
[He] = 1s^{2}, [Ne] = 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6},
[Ar] = 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}, [Kr] = 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}
Between Groups 2 and 3 (13)
are the d–blocks and f–blocks where the quantum energy level
rules permit their inclusion and electron filling. Periods 4 and
5 have 18 elements each, including the
3d and 4d blocks
of elements
respectively (Groups 3 to 12 – new notation). 
_{5}B [He]2s^{2}2p^{1} 
_{6}C [He]2s^{2}2p^{2} 
_{7}N [He]2s^{2}2p^{3} 
_{8}O [He]2s^{2}2p^{4} 
_{9}F [He]2s^{2}2p^{5} 
_{10}Ne [He]2s^{2}2p^{6} 
3 
_{11}Na [Ne]3s^{1} 
_{12}Mg [Ne]3s^{2} 
_{13}Al [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{1} 
_{14}Si [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{2} 
_{15}P [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{3} 
_{16}S [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{4} 
_{17}Cl [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{5} 
_{
18}Ar [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{6} 
4 
_{19}K [Ar]4s^{1} 
_{20}Ca [Ar]4s^{2} 
_{21}Sc [Ar] 3d^{1}4s^{2} 
_{22}Ti [Ar] 3d^{2}4s^{2} 
_{23}V [Ar] 3d^{3}4s^{2} 
_{24}Cr [Ar] 3d^{5}4s^{1} 
_{25}Mn [Ar] 3d^{5}4s^{2} 
_{26}Fe [Ar] 3d^{6}4s^{2} 
_{27}Co [Ar] 3d^{7}4s^{2} 
_{28}Ni [Ar] 3d^{8}4s^{2} 
_{29}Cu [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{1} 
_{30}Zn [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2} 
_{31}Ga [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{1} 
_{32}Ge [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{2} 
_{33}As [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{3} 
_{34}Se [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{4} 
_{35}Br [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{5} 
_{36}Kr [Ar] 3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6} 
5 
_{37}Rb [Kr]5s^{1} 
_{38}Sr [Kr]5s^{2} 
_{39}Y [Kr] 4d^{1}5s^{2} 
_{40}Zr [Kr] 4d^{2}5s^{2} 
_{41}Nb [Kr] 4d^{4}5s^{1} 
_{42}Mo [Kr] 4d^{5}5s^{1} 
_{43}Tc [Kr] 4d^{5}5s^{2} 
_{44}Ru [Kr] 4d^{7}5s^{1} 
_{45}Rh [Kr] 4d^{8}5s^{1} 
_{46}Pd [Kr] 4d^{10} 
_{47}Ag [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{1} 
_{48}Cd [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2} 
_{49}In [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{1} 
_{50}Sn [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{2} 
_{51}Sb [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{3} 
_{52}Te [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{4} 
_{53}I [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{5} 
_{54}Xe [Kr] 4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6} 
6 
_{
55}Cs [Xe]6s^{1} 
_{
56}Ba [Xe]6s^{2} 
4f–block (14) and 5d–block
(10) 32 elements in period 6 including the Lanthanide Series of
Metals. 
_{81}Tl [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{1} 
_{82}Pb [Xe]
5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{2} 
_{83}Bi [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{3} 
_{84}Po [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{4} 
_{
85}At [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{5} 
_{
86}Rn [Xe] 5d^{10}6s^{2}6p^{6} 
7 
_{87}Fr [Rn]7s^{1} 
_{
88}Ra [Rn]7s^{2} 
5f–block and 6d–block
including the Actinide Series of Metals. 







Note on Group numbers:
Using 0 to denote the Group number of Noble Gases is very historic now
since compounds of xenon known exhibiting a valency of 8.

Because of the horizontal series
of elements e.g. like the Sc to Zn block (10 elements), Groups 3 to
0 can also be numbered as Groups 13 to 18 to fit in with the
actual number of vertical columns of elements.

This can make things confusing, but there
it is, classification is still in progress!

The atomic/proton
number, decides which element an atom is and the outer electron
structure decides which group/block/series the element belongs to and
ultimately its chemistry.

The s p d
f blocks are shown in the Periodic Table above.

The most stable
electron configurations

What is the electronic
basis of Groups of
elements? – their 'electronic classification'

For groups 1 to 2, and
'old' 3 to 0/'new' notation 13 to 18 (except He), all the elements
in the same vertical column have the same outer electron
configuration and therefore will be expected to have a very similar
chemistry.

For the d blocks of
Groups 3 to 12, using the 'new' group number notation, the vertical 'group'
connection of similar outer electron configuration is
consistent except for V/Nb, Fe/Ru, Co/Rh, Ni/Pd where the 3d/4s and
4d/5s pairs of levels are of very similar energy and small differences in outer
electron configuration occur.

What
is the electronic basis for the 'series of elements'? – their 'electronic classification'

The '1st
Transition Metals Series' from Sc to Zn, and other 'horizontal blocks' are sometimes called
a 'series' but they are better described as the '3d block' or '3d
series of elements' (and, 4d block, 4f block – filling of 4f
sub–shell etc.), but a horizontal row of elements, unlike the
vertical columns of the eight vertical groups.

What is the overall
electronic basis for blocks of
elements across the whole of the periodic table?

The s–block
consists of Groups 1 and 2 where the only outer electrons are in an s
sub–energy level orbital (no outer p electrons, 2 per period).

The p–block
corresponds to Groups 3 to 0 (old notation) or Groups 13 to 18 (new
notation) where the three p sub–energy level orbitals are being
filled (6 per period).

Starting with
period 4, where the first of the d sub–shells is low enough in energy
to be filled, there are ten elements 'inserted' between groups 2 and
3, the so–called d blocks of ten elements (the 1st block, the
3d block Sc–Zn is on Period 4).

Therefore Sc to Zn form
the head elements of Groups 3 to 12 using the 'new' group number
notation.

Similarly on period 5 there is a 4d block
where the 4d sub–shell level is filled.

So 10 d block elements per
period are now permitted\under the quantum number rules.

Starting with
cerium (Z=58, period 6), see in full table below, there is a further
insertion of fourteen elements where the seven f–orbital sub–shell is
being filled after the first of the d–block metals and similarly with
thorium (Z=90) in period 7 and these are known as the f blocks
(14 per period where permitted).

The
full Periodic Table is shown below without the
electron configurations, but including the old/*new group number
notation.
Pd 
s–block
metals 
3d to
6d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4
to 7), note that the 1st (d^{1}) and 10th (d^{10}) are NOT true
transition elements. 
p–block
non–metals and metals 
Gp1 
Gp2 
Gp3/*13 
Gp4/*14 
Gp5/*15 
Gp6/*16 
Gp7/*17 
Gp0/*18 
1 
_{1}H Note: (i) H does not readily
fit into any group, (ii) He not strictly a 'p' element but does
belong in Gp
0/18

_{2}He 
2 
_{3}Li 
_{4}Be 
Full IUPAC modern Periodic Table of Elements
_{Z}Symbol, z = atomic or proton
number 
_{5}B 
_{6}C 
_{7}N 
_{8}O 
_{9}F 
_{10}Ne 
3 
_{11}Na 
_{12}Mg 
*Gp3 
*Gp4 
*Gp5 
*Gp6 
*Gp7 
*Gp8 
*Gp9 
*Gp10 
*Gp11 
*Gp12 
_{13}Al 
_{14}Si 
_{15}P 
_{16}S 
_{17}Cl 
_{18}Ar 
4 
_{19}K 
_{20}Ca 
_{21}Sc 
_{22}Ti 
_{23}V 
_{24}Cr 
_{25}Mn 
_{26}Fe 
_{27}Co 
_{28}Ni 
_{29}Cu 
_{30}Zn 
_{31}Ga 
_{32}Ge 
_{33}As 
_{34}Se 
_{35}Br 
_{36}Kr 
5 
_{37}Rb 
_{38}Sr 
_{39}Y 
_{40}Zr 
_{41}Nb 
_{42}Mo 
_{43}Tc 
_{44}Ru 
_{45}Rh 
_{46}Pd 
_{47}Ag 
_{48}Cd 
_{49}In 
_{50}Sn 
_{51}Sb 
_{52}Te 
_{53}I 
_{54}Xe 
6 
_{55}Cs 
_{56}Ba 
_{57}La* 
_{72}Hf 
_{73}Ta 
_{74}W 
_{75}Re 
_{76}Os 
_{77}Ir 
_{78}Pt 
_{79}Au 
_{80}Hg 
_{81}Tl 
_{82}Pb 
_{83}Bi 
_{84}Po 
_{85}At 
_{86}Rn 
7 
_{87}Fr 
_{88}Ra 
_{89}Ac* 
_{104}Rf 
_{105}Db 
_{106}Sg 
_{107}Bh 
_{108}Hs 
_{109}Mt 
_{110}Ds 
_{111}Rg 
_{112}Cn 
_{113}? 
_{114}Fl 
_{115}? 
_{116}Lv 
_{117}? 
_{118}? 
Gp
1 Alkali Metals
Gp 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
Gp 7/17 Halogens
Gp 0/18 Noble Gases
Take note of the four
points on the right 

*_{57}La 
_{58}Ce 
_{59}Pr 
_{60}Nd 
_{61}Pm 
_{62}Sm 
_{63}Eu 
_{64}Gd 
_{65}Tb 
_{66}Dy 
_{67}Ho 
_{68}Er 
_{69}Tm 
_{70}Yb 
_{71}Lu 
*_{89}Ac 
_{90}Th 
_{91}Pa 
_{92}U 
_{93}Np 
_{94}Pu 
_{95}Am 
_{96}Cm 
_{97}Bk 
_{98}Cf 
_{99}Es 
_{100}Fm 
_{101}Md 
_{102}No 
_{103}Lr 
*Horizontal insert
in Period
6 of the
Lanthanide
Metal Series (Lanthanides/Lanthanoids) Z=57 to 71
includes 4f–block
series (58–71).
*Horizontal insert
in Period 7 of the
Actinide Series of Metals
(Actinides/Actinoids) Z=89–103
including the
5f–block
series (90–103). 

Using 0 to
denote the Group number of the Noble Gases is historic i.e. when its valency was
considered zero since no compounds were known. However, from
1961 stable compounds of
xenon have been synthesised exhibiting up to the maximum possible expected valency of 8
e.g. in XeO_{4}.

* _{21}Sc to _{30}Zn can be considered
as the top elements in the vertical Groups 3 to 12 (marked
as *Gp3 to *Gp12).

*Therefore
Groups 3–7 and 0 can also be numbered as
Groups 13 to 18 (marked as
*13,
*14,
*15,
*16,
*17 and
*18) to fit in with the maximum number of vertical columns of elements
in periods 4 and 5 (18 elements per period).

I'm afraid
this can make things confusing, but there
it is, classification is still in progress and the notation Group 1 to 18
seems due to become universal.

2.5
Electronic configuration of ions and oxidation states
How do you work out the
electron arrangement of ions? How do you work out the electron
configuration of ions?
In what order to you
remove electrons for positive ions? In what order do you add electrons
for negative ions?
SPECTROSCOPY, the
HYDROGEN SPECTRUM and IONISATION ENERGY PATTERNS
are on a separate page now
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keywords–notation:
What is the electron arrangement configuration of 1
Hydrogen, H ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 2
Helium, He ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 3
Lithium, Li ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 4
Beryllium, Be ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 5 Boron, B ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 6
Carbon, C ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 7
Nitrogen, N ? What is the electron arrangement
configuration of 8
Oxygen, O ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 9
Fluorine, F ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 10 Neon, Ne
? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 11
Sodium, Na ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 12
Magnesium, Mg ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 13
Aluminium, Al ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 14
Silicon, Si ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 15
Phosphorus, P ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 16
Sulphur, S ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 17
Chlorine, Cl ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 18
Argon, Ar ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 19
Potassium, K ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 20
Calcium, Ca ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 21
Scandium, Sc ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 22
Titanium, Ti ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 23
Vanadium, V ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 24
Chromium, Cr ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 25
Manganese, Mn ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 26 Iron, Fe ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 27
Cobalt, Co ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 28
Nickel, Ni ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 29
? What is the electron arrangement configuration of
Copper, Cu ? What is the electron arrangement
configuration of 30 Zinc, Zn ? What is the electron arrangement
configuration of 31
Gallium, Ga ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 32
Germanium, Ge ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 33
Arsenic, As ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 34
Selenium, Se ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 35
Bromine, Br ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 36
Krypton, Kr ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 37
Rubidium, Rb ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 38
Strontium, Sr ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 39
Yttrium, Y ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 40
Zirconium, Zr ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 41
Niobium, Nb ? What is the electron arrangement
configuration of 42
Molybdenum, Mo ? What is the electron arrangement
configuration of 43
Technetium, Tc ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 44
Ruthenium, Ru ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 45
Rhodium, Rh ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 46
Palladium, Pd ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 47
Silver, Ag ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 48
Cadmium, Cd ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 49
Indium, In ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 50 Tin, Sn
? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 51 ? What is the
electron arrangement configuration of
Antimony, Sb ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 52
Tellurium, Te ? What is the electron arrangement configuration
of 53
Iodine, I ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 54
Xenon, Xe ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 55
Caesium, Cs ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 56
Barium, Ba ? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 57 Lanthanum, La
? What is the electron arrangement configuration of 58 Cerium, Ce ? 1s1
1s2
1s22s1
1s22s2
1s22s22p1
1s22s22p2
1s22s22p3
1s22s22p4
1s22s22p5
1s22s22p6
1s22s22p63s1
1s22s22p63s2
1s22s22p63s23p1
1s22s22p63s23p2
1s22s22p63s23p3
1s22s22p63s23p4
1s22s22p63s23p5
1s22s22p63s23p6
1s22s22p63s23p64s1
1s22s22p63s23p64s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1
1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2
[Ar]3d104s24p1
[Ar]3d104s24p2
[Ar]3d104s24p3
[Ar]3d104s24p4
[Ar]3d104s24p5
[Ar]3d104s24p6
[Kr]5s1
[Kr]5s2
[Kr]4d15s2
[Kr]4d25s2
[Kr]4d45s1
[Kr]4d55s1
[Kr]4d55s2
[Kr]4d75s1
[Kr]4d85s1
[Kr]4d10
[Kr]4d105s1
[Kr]4d105s2
[Kr]4d105s25p1
[Kr]4d105s25p2
[Kr]4d105s25p3
[Kr]4d105s25p4
[Kr]4d105s25p5
[Kr]4d105s25p6
[Xe]6s1
[Xe]6s2
[Xe]5d16s2
[Xe]4f26s2
*
* 