Brown's GCSE/IGCSE KS4 science-CHEMISTRY Revision Notes
Oil, useful products, environmental problems, introduction to
1. Fossil Fuels - where do they come from?
What is a fossil fuel? What is
the origin of coal, peat, oil, natural gas? What is the Carbon Cycle?
Index of KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE
Chemistry Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages: 1.
Fossil Fuels : 2. Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions : 3.
ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons and combustion : 4.
Pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, what
makes a good fuel?, climate change-global warming :
5. Alkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbons :
6. Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products :
7. Polymers, plastics, uses and problems :
8. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of
organic compounds? : 9. Alcohols - Ethanol
- properties, reactions, biofuels :
10. Carboxylic acids and esters : 11. Addition
polymers and condensation polymers :
12. Natural Molecules - carbohydrates - sugars
- starch : 13. Amino acids, proteins,
enzymes & chromatography : 14. Oils, fats,
margarine and soaps :
15. Vitamins, drugs-analgesic medicines & food
additives and aspects of cooking chemistry! : 16. Ozone, CFC's and free
radicals : 17. Extra notes, ideas and links on
Global Warming and Climate Change : Multiple Choice and Gap-Fill Quizzes:
m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (GCSE/IGCSE easier-foundation-level)
m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (GCSE/IGCSE harder-higher-level) :
IGCSE/GCSE m/c QUIZ on other Aspects of Organic Chemistry
3 Easy linked GCSE/IGCSE Oil Products word-fill worksheets
The origin of oil
and other fossil fuels - what are they formed from?
Crude oil is formed
from organic material of the remains of plant and animal organisms that lived millions of
years ago. These remains form sediments e.g. at the bottom of seas,
and become buried under layers of sedimentary rock.
They decay, without air (oxygen), under the action of heat and
pressure to form crude oil over millions of years.
Crude oil is a
non-renewable energy resource taking millions of years to form from
degraded organic biomass.
The vast majority of
compounds found in crude oil are hydrocarbons, that is
compounds/molecules made up of carbon atoms combined with
It is a fossil fuel
because it is formed from once living organisms and the Sun is the
original source of energy. It is a non-renewable
and finite (limited reserves) energy resource because it takes millions of
years to form and we burn it faster than its is formed! It is also
known as a finite energy resource because it will eventually
run out! We do not have unlimited oil reserves!
Coal, peat and natural
gas are the other principal non-renewable fossil fuels
formed from the remains of plants or animals.
millions of years from the remains of tropical plant material, mainly
consists of carbon, Burning coal produces a lot of pollution as
the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The pollutants include soot particles
(black deposits of carbon), sulphur dioxide (lung irritant and acid rain
gas) and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons which are carcinogenic.
mainly the hydrocarbon methane CH4, is often found with oil.
It consists of 25% by mass of hydrogen and 75% carbon, and, apart from
the 'greenhouse' CO2, produces far less pollution than coal
The main reaction on burning
methane + oxygen ===> water
+ carbon dioxide
2O2(g) ==> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
is formed over hundreds-thousands of years from the decay of plant
material in the absence of oxygen, in boggy-water logged ground. It is a
poor quality fuel since the carbon content is much less than in coal and
large amount of ash formed on combustion. However, there is a peat fired
power station in Ireland.
THE CARBON CYCLE:
When the fossil fuels
are burned the 'carbon', as carbon dioxide, is returned to
the atmosphere of the Earth's environment. There, it gets absorbed by
plant leaves and used up in photosynthesis with the help of
sunlight energy and green chlorophyll. The
plant material decays reforming carbon dioxide, or, is eaten by
animals and used in respiration to form carbon dioxide. Either
way, this completes the
carbon cycle. See also
of Earth's atmosphere
carbon dioxide + water ==> glucose + oxygen
glucose + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water
+ 6O2 ==> 6CO2 + 6H2O
and fossil fuel
combustion, forest fires etc. all return carbon dioxide to
Some of the carbon
ends up as coal from decayed plants or oil from decayed animal
remains i.e. fossil fuel formation, which ultimately also becomes
part of the carbon cycle.
from burning fossil fuels are dealt with in section 4.
Pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur/nitrogen oxides, acid rain, a
good fuel?, climate change
Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry
3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets
ALSO gap-fill ('word-fill') exercises
originally written for ...
... AQA GCSE Science
Useful products from
crude oil AND
... OCR 21st C GCSE Science
Worksheet gap-fill C1.1c Air
pollutants etc ...
... Edexcel 360 GCSE Science
Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation
... each set are interlinked,
so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes
Level Organic Chemistry revision notes
Revise KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE/O level
Chemistry Revision-Information Study Notes for revising for AQA GCSE Science, Edexcel
360Science/IGCSE Chemistry & OCR 21stC Science, OCR Gateway Science WJEC/CBAC
GCSE science-chemistry CCEA/CEA GCSE science-chemistry
(and courses equal to US grades 8, 9, 10)
content copyright © Dr W P Brown 2000-2012 All rights reserved
revision notes, puzzles, quizzes, worksheets, x-words etc. * Copying of website
material is not permitted
Alphabetical Index for Science
B C D
G H I J K L M
N O P
U V W
X Y Z