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Doc Brown's GCSE/IGCSE/O Level KS4 science-CHEMISTRY Revision Notes

INDEX of pages on Oil, its many useful products, environmental problems and an introduction to organic chemistry

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE/O level Chemistry

Index of Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages

The 17 sections include an introduction to fossil Fuels e.g. coal, oil and natural gas. Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions related to their properties. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons which readily burn and react with chlorine. Pollution from carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, acid rain, nitrogen oxides are described and discussed and what makes a good fuel? and what are the implication of climate change-global warming. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that react with bromine and form polymers. Cracking solves several problems of supply and demand including making monomers to make polymers like poly(ethene), poly(propene), polystyrene. Plastics have many uses but some problems too. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds? e.g. like alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters, addition polymers like PVC and condensation polymers like Nylon. Natural molecules eg carbohydrates, sugars, starches, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, oils, fats, margarine and soap manufacture. Some extra notes have been added on vitamins, cooking chemistry, food additives, drugs-analgesic medicines and ozone layer depletion, CFC's and free radicals and finally ideas are outlined on global warming and climate change.

1. (c) doc b Fossil Fuels, coal, oil & natural gas and the Carbon Cycle

2. (c) doc b Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions, a good fuel?

3. (c) doc b ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons, combustion, reaction with chlorine

4. (c) doc b Pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur/nitrogen oxides, acid rain, climate change

5. (c) doc b ALKENES - unsaturated hydrocarbons - reaction with bromine & hydrogen

6. (c) doc b Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

7. (c) doc b Polymerisation, plastics, poly(ethene), poly(propene), uses, problems, recycling

8. (c) doc b Introduction to Organic Chemistry, why many series of compounds?

9. (c) doc b Alcohols, Ethanol, manufacture, reactions, biofuels & alternative fuels

10. (c) doc b Carboxylic acids and esters, uses

11. (c) doc b Condensation polymers, Nylon & Terylene, comparing thermoplastics, fibres and thermosets

12. (c) doc b Natural Molecules - carbohydrates - sugars - starch

13. (c) doc b Amino acids, proteins, enzymes & chromatography

14. (c) doc b Natural vegetable oils, fats, margarine, emulsions and soaps

15. (c) doc b Vitamins, drugs, medicines, E numbers, food additives, cooking chemistry!

16. (c) doc b Ozone, CFC's and free radicals O3

17. (c) doc b Extra notes & ideas on Global Warming and Climate Change

Advanced Level Organic Chemistry revision notes


NANOCHEMISTRY

Part 1. General introduction to nanoscience and commonly used terms explained

Part 2. NANOCHEMISTRY - an introduction and potential applications

Part 3. Uses of Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) oxide, fat and silver

Part 4. From fullerenes & bucky balls to carbon nanotubes

Part 5. Graphene and Fluorographene

Part 6. Cubic and hexagonal boron nitride BN

Part 7. Problems, issues and implications associated with using nanomaterials

SMART MATERIALS

Part 1 CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS - Thermochromic, Photochromic & Electrochromic Materials

Part 2 SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS e.g. Nitinol & Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

Part 3 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS, pH and temperature sensitive-responsive polymers, Self-healing materials

Part 4 LYCRA-SPANDEX

Part 5 High performance polymers like KEVLAR

Part 6 GORETEX, THINSULATE and TEFLON-PTFE

Part 7 PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT (PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS) & PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS

Part 8 CARBON FIBRES


A warning! Most of the chemistry described on these pages, as well as most developed national economies, is based on crude oil at the moment, and, will no doubt to continue to do so for some time - but NOT FOREVER. Unfortunately oil won't last forever and much of our 'oil based economy' is not sustainable in the future and the potential dangers to the planet from 'climate change' i.e. the global warming from the 'Greenhouse Effect' aided by fossil fuel burning also make uncomfortable thinking. As the world population increases, oil based agriculture is not going to be able to feed everyone. Food production uses huge amounts of energy in the production of artificial-synthetic fertilisers, transportation and machinery on farms. Therefore, one would hope that more 'green sustainable' economic systems will be developed including alternative energy supplies not based on fossil fuels and major changes in agricultural practices to be much less reliant on 'oil' and 'greener' methodology in the chemical industry itself. It is fair to point out that crude oil is an extremely valuable chemical raw material and produces really useful products from smart material plastics to lifesaving drugs and components in many consumer products that are genuinely useful to improving the quality of our lives. therefore burning it is its crudest possible use. In the long-run it should be conserved and used much more sparingly for specific and necessary purposes.


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Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (easier-foundation-level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on Oil Products (harder-higher-level)

KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE m/c QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry

and (c) doc b 3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

ALSO gap-fill ('word-fill') exercises originally written for ...

... AQA GCSE Science (c) doc b Useful products from crude oil AND (c) doc b Oil, Hydrocarbons & Cracking etc.

... OCR 21st C GCSE Science (c) doc b Worksheet gap-fill C1.1c Air pollutants etc ...

... Edexcel 360 GCSE Science Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation etc ...

... each set are interlinked, so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes

Advanced Level Organic Chemistry revision notes


Notes information to help revise KS4 Science Additional Science Triple Award Separate Sciences GCSE/IGCSE/O level Chemistry Revision-Information Study Notes for revising for AQA GCSE Science, Edexcel GCSE Science/IGCSE Chemistry & OCR 21st Century Science, OCR Gateway Science WJEC/CBAC GCSE science-chemistry CCEA/CEA GCSE science-chemistry (and courses equal to US grades 8, 9, 10)


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