Doc Brown's GCSE/IGCSE/O Level KS4 science-CHEMISTRY Revision Notes
INDEX of pages on Oil, its many useful products, environmental problems and an introduction to organic chemistry
KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE/O level Chemistry
Index of Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages
The 17 sections include an introduction to fossil Fuels e.g. coal, oil and natural gas. Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions related to their properties. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons which readily burn and react with chlorine. Pollution from carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, acid rain, nitrogen oxides are described and discussed and what makes a good fuel? and what are the implication of climate change-global warming. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that react with bromine and form polymers. Cracking solves several problems of supply and demand including making monomers to make polymers like poly(ethene), poly(propene), polystyrene. Plastics have many uses but some problems too. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds? e.g. like alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters, addition polymers like PVC and condensation polymers like Nylon. Natural molecules eg carbohydrates, sugars, starches, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, oils, fats, margarine and soap manufacture. Some extra notes have been added on vitamins, cooking chemistry, food additives, drugs-analgesic medicines and ozone layer depletion, CFC's and free radicals and finally ideas are outlined on global warming and climate change.
A warning! Most of the chemistry described on these pages, as well as most developed national economies, is based on crude oil at the moment, and, will no doubt to continue to do so for some time - but NOT FOREVER. Unfortunately oil won't last forever and much of our 'oil based economy' is not sustainable in the future and the potential dangers to the planet from 'climate change' i.e. the global warming from the 'Greenhouse Effect' aided by fossil fuel burning also make uncomfortable thinking. As the world population increases, oil based agriculture is not going to be able to feed everyone. Food production uses huge amounts of energy in the production of artificial-synthetic fertilisers, transportation and machinery on farms. Therefore, one would hope that more 'green sustainable' economic systems will be developed including alternative energy supplies not based on fossil fuels and major changes in agricultural practices to be much less reliant on 'oil' and 'greener' methodology in the chemical industry itself. It is fair to point out that crude oil is an extremely valuable chemical raw material and produces really useful products from smart material plastics to lifesaving drugs and components in many consumer products that are genuinely useful to improving the quality of our lives. therefore burning it is its crudest possible use. In the long-run it should be conserved and used much more sparingly for specific and necessary purposes.
Multiple Choice Quizzes and Worksheets
ALSO gap-fill ('word-fill') exercises originally written for ...
... OCR 21st C GCSE Science Worksheet gap-fill C1.1c Air pollutants etc ...
... Edexcel 360 GCSE Science Crude Oil and its Fractional distillation etc ...
... each set are interlinked, so clicking on one of the above leads to a sequence of several quizzes
Notes information to help revise KS4 Science Additional Science Triple Award Separate Sciences GCSE/IGCSE/O level Chemistry Revision-Information Study Notes for revising for AQA GCSE Science, Edexcel GCSE Science/IGCSE Chemistry & OCR 21st Century Science, OCR Gateway Science WJEC/CBAC GCSE science-chemistry CCEA/CEA GCSE science-chemistry (and courses equal to US grades 8, 9, 10)