Doc Brown's Chemistry KS4 science GCSE/IGCSE/O level Revision Notes

Reversible Reactions, Chemical Equilibrium, Ammonia Synthesis by the Haber Process & Nitric acid, their Manufacture and Uses, Fertilisers, Nitrogen Cycle

The first two sections introduce the concepts of reversible reactions and a dynamic chemical equilibrium through detailed explanation and example descriptions. The rules on the effect of temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of an equilibrium are also covered. The 3rd section describes the manufacture (synthesis) of ammonia by the Haber Process from nitrogen and hydrogen and how ammonia is converted to nitric acid. The 4th and 5th sections describe some important uses of ammonia and nitric acid, including the use of ammonium and nitrate salts as artificial fertilisers and problems with their use. The last section outlines the 'Nitrogen Cycle' in terms of the basic chemistry and basic biological factors. These revision notes should prove useful for the new AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry & OCR GCSE chemistry (Gateway & 21st Century) GCSE (91), (9-5) & (5-1) science courses.

Page Index

A Reversible Reactions

B Reversible reactions and Equilibrium

C The Haber Synthesis of ammonia - nitrogen fixation

D(a) The manufacture and uses of ammonia-nitric acid-fertilisers (and preparation of ammonium salts)

D(b) NPK fertilisers-environmental problems

E The nitrogen cycle

(c) doc b Foundation tier (easier) multiple choice QUIZ on ammonia, nitric acid and fertilisers etc.

(c) doc b Higher tier (harder) multiple choice QUIZ on ammonia, nitric acid and fertilisers etc.

Advanced Level Notes on Chemical Equilibrium (use indexes)

Advanced Level Chemistry Notes p-block nitrogen & ammonia

The huge original page has now been split into five sections A to E

1. Reversible Reactions - Introduction

1a The thermal decomposition of ammonium chloride

1b The thermal decomposition of hydrated copper(II) sulphate

1c The reaction of bismuth chloride with water

1d The formation and decomposition of ammonia

1e The formation and hydrolysis of an ester


2. Reversible reactions and Equilibrium

(a) The formation of calcium oxide (lime) and carbon dioxide from calcium carbonate (limestone)

(b) The formation of hydrogen chloride from hydrogen and chlorine

(c) The formation of ammonia (see section 3. below)


3. The Synthesis of ammonia - The Haber Process


4. The Uses of Ammonia

4(a) Ammonia is used to manufacture nitric acid

4(b) Ammonia is used to manufacture 'artificial' nitrogenous fertilisers

5. Problems with using 'artificial' fertilisers


6. The Nitrogen Cycle


Index: A Reversible Reactions  *  B Reversible reactions and Equilibrium

 C The Haber Synthesis of ammonia  *  D(a) The Uses of ammonia-nitric acid-fertilisers

D(b) Fertilisers-environmental problems  *  E The nitrogen cycle

Advanced Level Notes - Chemical Equilibrium

Advanced Level Notes - Nitrogen & Ammonia

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