3o. The covalent bonding in the chloromethane molecule

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes


* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1 1H  Note that hydrogen does not readily fit into any group but is a non-metal 2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
The covalent molecule chloromethane from carbon combining with hydrogen and chlorine

A further selection of dot & cross electronic Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in molecules, particularly simple organic molecules.

Only the outer valency electrons are shown for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine.

Can you deduce these electronic diagrams of covalently bonded molecules for yourself?

Ex. 10 nitrogen N2; Ex. 11 ethane C2H6; Ex. 12 chloromethane CH3Cl and Ex. 13 methanol CH3OH.

Electronic origin of the diagrams showing the outer electrons of N, C, Cl and O: N at. no. 7 (2.5), H at. no. (1), C at. no. 6 (2.4), Cl at. no. 17 (2.8.7) and O at. no. 8 (2.6) plus a variety of crosses and blobs!

The valencies or combining power in these examples are N 3, H 1, C 4, Cl 1 and O 2, so,  these valency numbers correspond to the number of electrons the atom needs to give a stable outer shell - that's what valency is all about!

From these you can work out others e.g. Ex. 12 can be used to derive the ox diagram for tetrachloromethane CCl4.

Only the outer electrons are shown in the dot and cross diagrams below.

(c) doc b 

(c) doc b 2D displayed formula and (c) doc b 3D impression of the displayed formula of chloromethane

3D ball and stick model of chloromethane CH3Cl 3D ball and stick model of chloromethane CH3Cl

3D space-filling model of chloromethane CH3Cl 3D space-filling model of chloromethane CH3Cl

 

full Lewis dot and cross diagram for chloromethane molecule showing inner shell electrons of carbon and chlorine  The full Lewis dot and cross diagram for the chloromethane molecule showing the inner shell electrons of carbon and chlorine

 


Comments

Melting point of chloromethane -97 oC

Boiling point of chloromethane -24 oC

Chloromethane is a colourless gas at room temperature - harmful vapour.


What next?

Recommend next: The covalent bonding in the methanol molecule

Explaining the properties of small covalently bonded molecules

 

Sub-index for Part 3. Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties

 

Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes

 

Perhaps of interest?

Basic organic chemistry (GCSE level)

 

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