3m. The covalent bonding in the nitrogen molecule

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes


* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1 1H  Note that hydrogen does not readily fit into any group but is a non-metal 2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
The covalent molecule of nitrogen combining with itself

 

A further selection of dot & cross electronic Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in molecules, particularly simple organic molecules.

Only the outer valency electrons are shown for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine.

Can you deduce these electronic diagrams of covalently bonded molecules for yourself?

Ex. 10 nitrogen N2; Ex. 11 ethane C2H6; Ex. 12 chloromethane CH3Cl and Ex. 13 methanol CH3OH.

Electronic origin of the diagrams showing the outer electrons of N, C, Cl and O: N at. no. 7 (2.5), H at. no. (1), C at. no. 6 (2.4), Cl at. no. 17 (2.8.7) and O at. no. 8 (2.6) plus a variety of crosses and blobs!

The valencies or combining power in these examples are N 3, H 1, C 4, Cl 1 and O 2, so,  these valency numbers correspond to the number of electrons the atom needs to give a stable outer shell - that's what valency is all about!

Only the outer electrons are shown in the dot and cross Lewis diagram of nitrogen below.

(c) doc b

:N≡N: is the displayed formula for nitrogen showing the unpaired electrons at each end of the molecule

The electrons of a nitrogen atom are a 2.5 configuration, so three of each need to be shared to make a full outer shell for both atoms. Note the nitrogen molecule therefore has a very strong triple bond.

full Lewis dot and cross diagram for the nitrogen molecule The full Lewis dot and cross diagram for the nitrogen molecule


Comments

Melting point of nitrogen -210 oC

Boiling point of nitrogen -196 oC

Colourless gas at room temperature.


What next?

Recommend next: The covalent bonding in the ethane molecule

Explaining the properties of small covalently bonded molecules

 

Sub-index for Part 3. Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties

 

Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes

 

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