3k. The covalent bonding in the carbon dioxide molecule

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes


Covalent bonding diagram for CARBON DIOXIDE covalent molecule, molecular formula CO2

* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1 1H  Note that hydrogen does not readily fit into any group but is a non-metal 2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
The covalent molecule carbon dioxide from carbon combining with oxygen

 

 (c) doc b dot and cross diagram of the carbon dioxide moleculeOne atom of carbon (2.4) combines with two atoms of oxygen (2.6) to form the compound carbon dioxide CO2 (only the outer shell of carbon's electrons are shown).

Carbon is four electrons short of a full outer shell (8 electrons) and oxygen is two electrons short of a full outer shell (8 electrons), so one carbon atom shares its four outer electrons with two outer electrons from each of the oxygen atoms, so all three atoms now have a full outer shell of 8 electrons in the formation of two double bonds (O=C=O).

Electronically, carbon (2.4) becomes like neon (2.8) and oxygen (2.6), also becomes like neon (2.8), so the hydrogen and carbon atoms effectively have full outer shells in forming the covalent bonds when the atoms share their outer electrons.

(Lewis diagram of carbon dioxide) simplified 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalently bonded carbon dioxide molecule.

 

is the full 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalent bonding in the carbon dioxide molecule.

The electronic dot & cross Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in carbon dioxide

The molecule can be shown as (c) doc b (displayed formula) with two carbon = oxygen double covalent bonds (Advanced note: called a linear shape, the O=C=O bond angle is 180o). Valencies of C and O are 4 and 2 respectively. The displayed formula

The carbon dioxide molecule is held together by the strong C=O carbon–oxygen double covalent bonds by sharing electrons.

 


Comments

Melting point of carbon dioxide -57 oC

Boiling point of carbon dioxide ? oC, because it sublimes at -78oC ('dry ice' gas to give smoke effects)


What next?

Recommend next: The covalent bonding in the ethene molecule

Explaining the properties of small covalently bonded molecules

 

Sub-index for Part 3. Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties

 

Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes

 

Perhaps of interest?

Gas preparations including carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is produced in the reaction of acids with carbonates

 

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