3e. The covalent bonding in the chlorine molecule
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes
Covalent bonding diagram for CHLORINE covalent molecule, molecular formula Cl2
* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)
Two chlorine atoms (2.8.7) form the molecule of the element chlorine Cl2
Chlorine, a Cl atom, is one electron short of a full outer shell of 8 like argon (2.8.8), so two chlorine atoms share an electron to have full outer shells.
and combine to form where both atoms have a pseudo argon structure of 8 outer electrons around each atom. The electronic dot & cross Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in chlorine - outer shell electrons only.
(Lewis diagram of chlorine on the left) simplified 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalently bonded chlorine molecule
The chlorine molecule is held together by the strong chlorine–chlorine single covalent bond from sharing outer electrons, Cl–Cl (displayed formula)..
Electronically, both chlorines (2.8.7) become like argon (2.8.8), so the chlorine atoms effectively have a full outer shell in forming the covalent bonds when the atoms share their outer electrons.
All the other halogens would be similar e.g. F2, Br2 and I2 etc.
Here the valency of halogens like chlorine is 1.
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