1g. Can we deduce the type of bonding and structure from physical data?
Is it an ionic compound, covalent element/compound,
giant structure - covalent or metallic?
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE/IGCSE/O/IB/AS/A US grade 9-12 Level Revision Notes
Can we deduce the likely chemical bonding in a material from its physical and chemical properties?
Can you work out the bonding and structure of the substances A to F?
Solubility can be a bit subtle, so take care!
Answers near the bottom of the page!
Recommend next: Quizzes - after working trough Parts 2 to 5
Sub-index for: Part 1 Introduction to chemical bonding - why? how? and patterns
Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes
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Answers to the 'type of bonding' question
A is an ionic structure and bonding, giant ionic lattice, high melting/boiling point, only conducts when molten, the solubility and electrical conduction in water is extra evidence, but isn't definitive for substance A (see E).
B is a giant metallic lattice structure and metal bonds, high melting/boiling points, high density, conducts in solid, not just liquid.
C simple molecular structure, small molecules with covalent bonds, low melting/boiling point, no electrical conduction at all (no ions).
D giant covalent lattice, very high melting/boiling, no electrical conduction, won't dissolve in anything.
I've made A to D quite straightforward (as long as Bonding Parts 2 to 5 have been studied), but I've
E simple molecular structure, small molecules with covalent bonds, low melting/boiling point, no electrical conduction when molten, however it does conduct when dissolved in water, so ions must be formed to conduct electricity. The latter is a 'red herring', if it had an ionic structure the melting/boiling points would be much higher and the liquid would have conducted.
F Probably a thermally very stable giant covalent structure, but with weakly electrical conducting properties (even in the solid) due to delocalised electrons, completely insoluble. Its unlikely to be an ionic structure because it conducts in the solid. Metals do not decompose on heating to a high temperature and all metals will boil.