Brown's Chemistry Revision Notes -
Smart Materials and Materials Science
ALPHABETICAL LIST of
materials, effects etc. mentioned on these pages: Smart
Materials Science INDEX * CARBON FIBRES * CHROMOGENIC
MATERIALS * ELECTROCHROMIC MATERIALS
* GORETEX * HALOCHROMIC
MATERIALS * HIGH PERFORMANCE
POLYMERS * KEVLAR * LYCRA *
MEMORY ALLOYS * MAGNETOSTRICTIVE
MATERIALS * NITINOL *
pH SENSITIVE POLYMERS *
PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS *
PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS * PIEZO ELECTRIC EFFECT-MATERIALS *
MATERIALS * SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS *
SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS * SPANDEX
* TEMPERATURE-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS
* THERMOCHROMIC MATERIALS *
Carbon in the form of its
allotrope graphite is soft,
slippery and easily broken solid.
However, very thin filaments or
strands of graphite-carbon (carbon fibres) are very stiff and strong.
Precursor fibres of
polyacrylonitrile are carbonised under extreme heat is one method of making
Carbon fibres are useful for reinforcing other materials to make them
tougher i.e. strengthening composite materials.
Carbon fibres can be
incorporated into strong plastics to make an even stronger composite material.
Carbon fibre materials
are not only strong but very lightweight e.g. compared to strong metal alloys
So carbon fibre composites are used for skateboards, boat
hulls and high performance sports equipment like tennis racket frames.
However, these high performance
materials products don't come cheaply, you may pay
£7000 for a mountain bike, made from carbon fibres and titanium, that weighs just 6
kg (quote from BBC News website in 2006).
carbon nanotubes in nanochemistry, and the revision
notes on ..
... covalent Bonding - covalent structures
including diamond, graphite plus fullerenes, nanotubes
INDEX of SMART MATERIALS PAGES
CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS - Thermochromic, Photochromic & Electrochromic Materials
SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS e.g. Nitinol & Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys
SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS, pH and temperature sensitive-responsive polymers,
PART 5 High
performance polymers like KEVLAR
GORETEX, THINSULATE and TEFLON-PTFE
PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT (PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS) and PHOTOMECHANICAL MATERIALS
See also INDEX
Nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, carbon fibres and silver nanoparticles
are on a separate page
More on chemistry applications:
Uses of 220+ chemical elements, compounds, mixtures &