Doc Brown's Revision KS3 Science PHYSICS Unit 8I Heating and cooling
What the Quiz is based on - original work schemes - programmes of study
and the quizzes will be adapted to suit the NEW National Curriculum for KS3 Science
All of KS3 Science is now under review
In this unit pupils:
• recognise the need for a temperature scale
• learn to distinguish between heat (as energy) and temperature
• learn about mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation, and apply this to familiar contexts
• learn about expansion and change of state in solids, liquids and gases
• use the particle model to explain conduction, convection and change of state
In scientific enquiry pupils:
• draw and interpret line graphs from data collected
• carry out a survey of people’s perceptions of common temperatures
• investigate the effectiveness of different forms of insulation, controlling relevant variables
Note on the teaching of energy
This unit considers the idea that energy transfer results from a difference in temperature. This is an important concept, as most changes are a result of differences and energy changes are associated with them, eg a raised object falls, transforming its potential energy to kinetic energy. The unit also helps pupils distinguish heat (energy) from temperature. There has been much debate about the use of the word ‘heat’ for energy. The risk is that it might support the idea of a separate kind of stuff – as was current in science before the work of James Joule in the nineteenth century. It is used here in contexts which should avoid that misconception. The unit applies ideas of moving particles to explain the transfer of heat (energy) by conduction and convection, thus clarifying that, in this context, heat is a kind of movement. Particle models are also used to explain how matter changes state when energy is added or removed, so this unit needs to follow unit 7G ‘Particle model of solids, liquids and gases’ and unit 7H ‘Solutions’.
This unit is expected to take approximately 10 hours.
This unit uses ideas developed in the key stage 2 programme of study. It builds on ideas introduced in unit 4C ‘Keeping warm’ and unit 5D ‘Changing state’ in the key stage 2 scheme of work.
In unit 7I ‘Energy resources’, pupils will have identified that when fuels burn they release energy and have noted the consequent rise in temperature.
In unit 7G ‘Particle model of solids, liquids and gases’, pupils will have encountered the particle model of matter.
In unit 9I ‘Energy and electricity’, pupils will study energy transformation and energy conservation.
At the end of this unit
in terms of scientific enquiry
most pupils will: plan a survey of perceptions of temperature, using an appropriate sample; plan an investigation into methods of reducing heat loss; carry this out using ICT for recording temperature data and relate findings to practical implications; select effectively information from secondary sources to compare methods of preventing heat loss in houses; collect and interpret temperature data from a substance changing state
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: use thermometers safely; present survey data using a chart or table; identify and control key variables in an investigation of insulators for reducing heat loss and draw practical conclusions; select information to report on ways of reducing heat loss in houses; draw a graph of temperature changes when a substance changes state
some pupils will have progressed further and will: make systematic measurements of temperature changes with a precision which enables reliable conclusions to be drawn in an investigation of insulators; evaluate different sources of information on domestic heat loss prevention methods; extrapolate from temperature data on change of state
in terms of physical processes
most pupils will: give examples of common temperatures on the Celsius scale; distinguish between heat and temperature, describe energy flow as the result of temperature difference; describe some uses of good conductors and insulators and examples of conduction in solids and convection in liquids and gases; explain conduction and convection, expansion and change of state in terms of the particle model
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: give examples of some common temperatures; describe some uses of good conductors and insulators; describe how insulators can reduce heat loss; describe how substances expand and change state
some pupils will have progressed further and will: give examples of a wide range of temperatures on the Celsius scale; compare conductivity of materials and relate this to their uses; use the particle model to explain change of state relating this to the forces between particles
It is helpful if pupils:
• know that temperature is a measure of how hot an object is
• can use a thermometer
• know that metals are good thermal and electrical conductors
• recall that evaporation occurs at the surface of a liquid
• know about the particle model of matter
• can describe differences between solids, liquids and gases
Risk assessments are required for any hazardous activity. In this unit pupils:
• use hot water and electrical heaters
• observe heated metals, liquids and air
• use flammable and oxidising materials
Model risk assessments used by most employers for normal science activities can be found in the publications listed in the Teacher’s guide. Teachers need to follow these as indicated in the guidance notes for the activities, and consider what modifications are needed for classroom situations.
Through the activities in this unit pupils will be able to understand, use and spell correctly words:
• relating to heat transfer, eg conduction, convection, radiation, insulator, conductor
• with similar but distinct meanings, eg heat (as energy), temperature
• relating to scientific enquiry, eg sample size, trial measurements, evaluation, prediction
Through the activities pupils could:
• organise information in an appropriate sequence
• show relationships between ideas in writing by using link words, eg so that, and reservation words, eg although, if
• a range of thermometers
• temperature sensors and dataloggers
• range of insulating materials, eg felt, expanded polystyrene, duvet filling, cork, thermal lining for curtains
• ‘energy houses’ – lidded boxes which can be insulated using a variety of materials of varying thicknesses, using Velcro pads
• information on insulation in the home
• vacuum pump
• radiant heater
• ‘ball and ring’ or other expansion demonstration apparatus
• salol (phenyl salicylate)
• consider why different clothes are worn at different times
• think about how to keep food and drink warm or cool
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