Doc Brown's Revision KS3 Science
BIOLOGY Unit 8C Microbes and disease
What the Quiz is based on - original work schemes - programmes of study
All of KS3 Science is now under review
and the quizzes will be adapted to suit the NEW National Curriculum for KS3 Science
In this unit pupils:
• learn that micro-organisms share the characteristics of other living things
• find out about growing micro-organisms to make products, and about the role of micro-organisms in infectious diseases
• learn about the body’s defence systems and how immunisation can protect against microbial infections
In scientific enquiry pupils:
• consider how ideas about the transmission of infectious diseases have changed and are continuing to develop
• learn how scientists work together to investigate and reduce the transmission of infectious disease
• learn how to grow micro-organisms healthily and safely
• consider the number of measurements needed for reliable data
• identify and control relevant variables
• investigate the activity of yeast, evaluating proposed approaches
Some of this unit may be undertaken in relation to the school’s PSHE programme. Teachers will be aware of the need for sensitivity to pupils and their families who may have or have had, a particular illness or may have reduced resistance to infection.
This unit is expected to take approximately 8 hours.
This unit draws on ideas developed in the key stage 2 programme of study. It builds on unit 6B ‘Micro-organisms’ in the key stage 2 scheme of work and on unit 8B ‘Respiration’.
In unit 9B ‘Fit and healthy’, pupils have further opportunities to consider the transmission and incidence of infectious diseases.
There are opportunities to link with citizenship and PSHE in this unit in dealing with medical advances, the development of drugs and food safety.
This unit lays the foundation for work in key stage 4 on the body’s defences against infection and the uses of micro-organisms in biotechnology.
This unit also relates to unit 9E(i) ‘Ensuring quality production (food)’ in the design and technology scheme of work, and unit 20 ‘Twentieth-century medicine’ and unit 21 ‘Scientific discoveries’ in the history scheme of work.
At the end of this unit
in terms of scientific enquiry
most pupils will: describe how understanding of how some infectious diseases are transmitted has developed as knowledge about micro-organisms has increased; point out trends and patterns in first-hand and secondary data, draw conclusions from these and relate them to scientific knowledge and understanding
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: describe how some infectious diseases are transmitted, point out some patterns in data and use these to draw conclusions
some pupils will have progressed further and will: describe how scientists’ interpretation of evidence has led to new ideas about the transmission of disease and to new drugs
in terms of life processes and living things
most pupils will: classify bacteria, fungi and viruses as micro-organisms, name some of the diseases they can cause and describe how they can be transmitted; describe some of the defences the body has against disease and describe immunisation as a way of improving immunity; recognise that antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses
some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: name some infectious diseases and describe how they can be transmitted; describe immunisation as a way of protecting against infectious disease
some pupils will have progressed further and will: explain how immunisation can improve immunity and describe how antibiotics may be effective across a wide spectrum or against specific bacteria
It is helpful if pupils:
• know that micro-organisms are living organisms
• have explored the characteristics of micro-organisms and know that they feed, grow and reproduce like other organisms
• know that organisms respire aerobically and produce carbon dioxide during the process
• can name some diseases caused by micro-organisms
Risk assessments are required for any hazardous activity. In this unit pupils:
• plan and carry out an investigation of yeast
• grow lactobacilli and produce yoghurt
• observe the growth of bacteria and the effect of antiseptic and antibiotics
Model risk assessments used by most employers for normal science activities can be found in the publications listed in the Teacher’s guide. Teachers need to follow these as indicated in the guidance notes for the activities, and consider what modifications are needed for individual classroom situations.
Through the activities in this unit pupils will be able to understand, use and spell correctly:
• words and phrases relating to micro-organisms and diseases, eg bacteria, viruses, fungi, measles, chickenpox, infection, pathogen, infectious disease
• words with precise meanings in scientific contexts, eg immunity, virus, food poisoning
• words with similar but distinct meanings, eg vaccination, inoculation and immunisation, antibiotic, anti-microbial
• words and phrases relating to scientific enquiry, eg sufficient data, epidemic, reliable data
Through the activities pupils could:
• listen for a specific purpose, note the main points and consider their relevance
• organise facts/ideas/information in an appropriate sequence
• secondary sources, eg simulation software, CD-ROMs, illustrating the growth of micro-organisms
• datalogging equipment and software to monitor pH
• secondary sources to explore routine immunisation, ideas about side effects, immunisation in other countries
• information on routine immunisation programmes for young children
• resources to cultivate selected strains of micro-organisms
• autoclave or alternative equipment for preparation of materials and safe disposal of microbe-contaminated waste
• stock cultures of suitable micro-organisms
• secondary sources, eg photographs, advertisements, medicine packaging, relating to the nature and uses of micro-organisms
• case studies of tracking and dealing with an outbreak of an infectious disease, eg Ebola, cholera, E. coli
• data about the incidence of bacterial disease over the last 60 years
• secondary data showing the incidence over the last century of a major childhood disease for which there is now immunisation
• read leaflets on immunisation available in doctors’ surgeries
• follow news stories about outbreaks of diseases such as typhoid, dysentery or cholera after natural disasters
• visit a dairy, creamery, cheese factory, brewery
• read fiction based on epidemics, eg Siege of Krishnapur, Story of San Michele
• find out about changes in life expectancy after childbirth since 1900
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