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s block elements : ADVANCED detailed notes on Group 1-2 Metals : AS basic m/c Quiz

sacrificial corrosion : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) stopping iron/steel rusting

safety - health issues : Nanoscience - health and safety issues :

'salt', 'common table salt' : see sodium chloride

salt hydrolysis : ADVANCED examples explained (also use top sub-index) :

Salters/OCR exam board : GCSE Science-Chemistry support-help links : Salters Advanced Chemistry AS homepage : A2 homepage : Revision index

salts : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) general solubility rules : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) soluble salt preparation by neutralisation : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) preparation by direct synthesis-combination of elements/precipitationQualitative tests for salts via cations + anions (use top index) :

sandstone - sedimentary rock : KS3-GCSE rock formation

samarium, Sm :

saponification : Basic Organic Notes section 5c Reaction forming soap from oils/fats :

saturated molecules : GCSE alkanes-structure-uses : GCSE alkanes-extra organic chemistryADVANCED Functional Groups :

saturated solution : GCSE explained-solubility or KS3-GCSE e.g. in salt purification-crystallisation

scandium, Sc : GCSE-notes-transition metals : GCSE-position in periodic table : GCSE-ADVANCED data : ADVANCED detailed notes 3d-block : ADVANCED Scandium :

scale-limescale : GCSE hard/soft water

schist - metamorphic rock : GCSE formation

scum : GCSE hard/soft water

seaborgium, Sg :

secondary - classification of organic molecules (or protein structure) : ADVANCED explained : ADVANCED alcohols : ADVANCED halogenoalkanes : ADVANCED amides : ADVANCED protein structureADVANCED aromatic amines-structure-naming : ADVANCED more examples of organic-nitrogen-compounds-naming-structure

secondary, primary and fuel cells/batteries : ADVANCED notes - examples explained (also use top 7. sub-index) :

sedimentary rocks/sedimentation : GCSE Earth Science notes :

selenium, Se : GCSE-AS metalloid/semi-metal use note :

self-healing materials : Smart materials - SELF-HEALING MATERIALS :

self-ionization : ADVANCED of water : ADVANCED of ammonia :

semi-metals/metalloids : GCSE-AS properties/uses notes :

separating funnel : KS3-GCSE-AS description-diagram-uses of :

separation of mixtures : KS3-GCSE notes on methods : KS3 easy quiz :

series : GCSE Transition Metals : GCSE metal reactivity

shale - sedimentary rock : GCSE rock formation

shapes of molecules : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) covalent bonding notes : AS examples, names, ox electron diagrams, bond angles

shells of electrons : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) atomic structure : GCSE outer shell related to reactivity - Gp7 Halogen reactivity or Gp1 Alkali Metal reactivity or ionic/covalent bonding

shape memory alloys : Smart materials - SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS :

shape memory polymers : Smart materials SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS :

shift of electrons : ADVANCED organic mechanisms

'shortened' structural formula/formulae : ADVANCED explained using alkane examples :

sievert : unit of radioactivity

silane, SiH4(g) GCSE-AS molecule-bonding : AS shape-bond angle

silica : see silicon dioxide below

silicon, Si : position and group in periodic table : GCSE-AS metalloid/semi-metal use note : GCSE-AS structure and bonding :

silicon dioxide, silicon(IV) oxide, silica, SiO2(s) : GCSE-AS giant covalent structure - bonding and properties

silicon hydride, SiH4ADVANCED molecule shape, bond angle, dot & cross electronic diagram :

silver, Ag, compounds : GCSE- lack of reactivity/displacement : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) silver salts-photography : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) electroplating : silver nanoparticle uses :

silver nitrate, AgNO3 : ADVAN-estimation of chloride silver nitrate titration Q's :

simple cell - battery : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) simple design and explanation

simple molecules : GCSE-AS covalent bonding notes :

simple distillation : GCSE-KS3 explanation-examples

single bonds : GCSE-AS covalent bond explained : GCSE e.g. in alkanes-oil product hydrocarbons

skeletal formula/formulae : ADVANCED explained using alkane examples : ADVANCED explained-examples-links homologous series

slag : GCSE-AS formation in blast furnace

slaked lime, calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2(s) : GCSE-AS formation and uses :

slate - metamorphic rock : GCSE formation

Smithsonite/calamine ore (zinc carbonate) : GCSE effect of heating/zinc metal extraction :

SN1 and SN2 : ADVANCED organic mechanismsADVANCED halogenoalkane nucleophilic substitution mechanisms :

soapless detergents : GCSE hard/soft water : 

soaps-detergents : GCSE effect with hard water : GCSE making soap :

sodium and compounds, Na , in  Group 1 The Alkali Metals : GCSE-data-properties-chemical reactions-uses : GCSE-AS electrolytic extraction of sodium : GCSE-reactivity-reactions involving oxygen/water/acids/displacement : ADVANCED data : ADVANCED detailed notes on Group 1 elements/compounds : Qualitative tests for salts via cations + anions (use top index) :

sodium bicarbonate : see sodium hydrogencarbonate

sodium borohydride

sodium bromide, NaBr: 

sodium carbonate, Na2CO3(s), Na2CO3.10H2O(s) hydrated crystals - washing soda : GCSE used in softening hard waterADVANCED use in volumetric titrations :

sodium chlorate(I), (sodium hypochlorite), NaOCl(aq) : GCSE uses of chlorine - bleaches :

sodium chloride, 'common salt', 'salt', NaCl(s), [brine, NaCl(aq)] : KS3-GCSE formation-neutralisationGCSE-ADVAN(basic) ionic bonding-structure-properties : GCSE Group 7 Halogen salt-brine electrolysis, production and uses of products :  GCSE formation from neutralisationGCSE electrolysis experimentsQualitative tests for salts via cations + anions (use top index) :

sodium fluoride, NaF : 

sodium hydrogencarbonate, NaHCO3(s), 'bicarbonate of soda', 'bicarb' : GCSE reactions with acids : GCSE use as raising agent in cooking

sodium hydrogensulphate, sodium hydrogensulfate, NaHSO4

sodium hydroxide, NaOH KS3-GCSE reaction with acids : GCSE salt-brine electrolysis - production-uses of productsADVANCED use in volumetric titrations :

sodium hypochlorite : see sodium chlorate(I) above

sodium iodide, NaI

sodium nitrate, sodium nitrate(V), NaNO3

sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate(III), NaNO2 : ADVANCED titration of with potassium manganate(VII) calculation :

sodium oxide, Na2O :  

sodium tetrahydridoborate(III), NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) : ADVANCED reduction of organic compounds :

sodium thiosulfate - see sodium thiosulphate below

sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3, 'thio' : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) rate of reaction experiment with acidADVANCED acid reaction kinetics : ADVANCED volumetric iodine titration calculations

soft (and water) water : GCSE explained-examples and types-treatments

solder : 

solids : KS3-GCSE-ADVAN(basic) kinetic particle theory/ properties/diagramsGCSE m/c Quiz : identity tests for

sols : GCSE explained-examples and types

solubility : (KS3)GCSE-AS explained-examples-rules-graphs-salt curves-general rules for  salts/oxides/hydroxides/carbonatesADVANCED solubility of organic compounds and intermolecular forces (Equilibria section 8.7) : Henry's Law : ADVANCED solubility of gases, Henry's Law

solubility product : ADVANCED equilibrium and calculations :

soluble : GCSE-KS3 word explained and examples or e.g. in salt purificationGCSE-KS3 particle pictures :

solute : GCSE-KS3 word explained and examples or e.g. in salt purificationGCSE-KS3 particle pictures :

solution : GCSE-KS3 word explained and examples or e.g. in salt purificationGCSE-KS3 particle pictures :

solvents : GCSE-KS3 word explained and examples or e.g. in salt purificationGCSE-KS3 particle pictures : ADVANCED solubility of organic compounds (Equilibria section 8.7) :

solvent extraction : KS3-GCSE simple example : ADVANCED solute distribution between two immiscible liquids, partition coefficient , calculations and uses :

soot-carbon : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) burning oil products-hydrocarbon-fossil fuels-incomplete combustion pollution

Spandex-Lycra : Materials science Materials science - LYCRA-SPANDEX :

spectroscopy : ADVANCED Introduction to mass spectrometry : ADVANCED Hydrogen Spectrum :

sphalerite/zinc blende ore : GCSE zinc metal extraction :

spontaneous ? : KS3-GCSE combustion : ADVANCED thermodynamically feasible :

SQA Scottish exam board : Science-Chemistry support-help links

stability constant : ADVANCED notes on stability Constants and entropy changes :

stainless steel : GCSE iron-chromium-nickel alloys

standard hydrogen electrode :  ADVANCED explained (also use top 7. sub-index) :

starch : GCSE-A(basic) structure

state symbols e.g. in equations : GCSE explained-examples

states of matter - gas/liquid/solid :KS3 easy quiz : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) detailed notes on kinetic particle theory and their properties : GCSE m/c Quiz

steam distillation : ADVANCED theory and practice : ADVANCED use in phenylamine preparation-diagrams :

steel : GCSE making steel : A Level notes - steel making : GCSE metal reactivity-rust preventionGCSE Transition Metal uses

stereoisomerism/stereochemistry : ADVANCED detailed notes-examples on geometrical/optical/amino acids-protein-enzyme structure-function (use top isomerism index)

stereoregular polymers : ADVANCED stereoregular-atactic/isotactic/syndiotactic forms :

stereospecific/stereospecificity : ADVANCED stereospecificity of enzyme function : ADVANCED stereospecific organic reactions explained

steric hindrance : ADVANCED explained for organic reactions

steroids : GCSE-AS cholesterol structure

stings - bee/wasp treatment : KS3-GCSE explained-treatment

stirring : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) rates of reaction factor

strong acids/bases/alkalis : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) examples-explainedADVANCED detailed advanced theory notes and calculations (use sub-index 5. near top of page) :

strontium and compounds, Sr : ADVANCED detailed notes s-block Gp 1/2 elements/compounds : : 

structural formula : GCSE e.g. hydrocarbons-oil products : GCSE extra organic chemistry : ADVANCED explained using alkane examplesADVANCED various styles

structural isomerism : ADVANCED detailed notes-examples of chain, positional, functional group isomerism and tautomerism

structural materials : GCSE polymer-structure-uses : GCSE polymer-bonding : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) metal-bonding-structure- properties : GCSE using metals steel/titanium/aluminium/alloys

subductionGCSE Earth Science notes

sublimation/sublime (physical state change) : KS3-GCSE explained-examples

substitution : GCSE simple example explained : ADVANCED explained for organic reactions

sucrose : GCSE-A(basic) structure

sugars : GCSE structureGCSE effect of conc. sulphuric acid

sulfate/sulphate/sulphate(VI), SO42- : Test forADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram :

sulfides/sulphides : GCSE ores for metal extraction copper or zincADVANCED acid-base reaction with acids to form H2S :

sulfite/sulphite/sulphate(IV), SO32- : Test forADVANCED oxidation with halogen : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram :

sulfonation/sulphonation and sulfonic/sulphonic acids : ADVANCED aromatic compound formation mechanisms  : ADVANCED aromatic-structure-naming

sulfur(VI) fluoride (sulphur hexafluoride), SiH4ADVANCED molecule shape, bond angle, dot & cross electronic diagram :

sulfuric acid - see sulphuric acid below

sunblockers, sunscreens, suncreams : sunscreens-sunblockers - titanium dioxide :

sulphate/sulphite - see sulfate/sulfite above

sulphides : see sulfides above

sulphur/sulfur, S :position and group in periodic table :  

sulphur dioxide,  or sulphur(IV) oxide, SO2(g) : Test for : GCSE fossil fuel burning-pollution : SO2 gas preparation and collectionGCSE formation-use in Contact ProcessADVANCED oxidation with halogen : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram : Qualitative tests for gases :

sulphur trioxide,  or sulphur(VI) oxide, SO3(g) : GCSE fossil fuel burning-pollutionGCSE formation-use in Contact Process : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram :

sulphuric acid H2SO4(l,aq) : GCSE dilute-reactions with metals/oxides/hydroxides/carbonates/ammonia and equation practice with answers : GCSE dilute-reaction with metals-reactivity seriesGCSE uses-manufacture-Contact Process, concentrated-reactions with sugar/hydrated copper sulphate/alcohol/ester catalystADVANCED use in volumetric titrations :

sunscreens/sunblockers/suncreams : sunscreens/suncreams/sunblockers as an example of the science of formulation chemistry : nanochemistry - sunscreens-sunblockers * titanium dioxide nanoparticles :

superconductivity & superconductors: GCSE-A Level Chem - Transition metals used as superconductors

surface area - particle size of solid reactant : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) rates of reaction factor

symbols : of the elements : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) use in equationsstate symbols

symmetrical alkenes : ADVANCED explained - organic reactions

syndiotactic poly(propene) : ADVANCED stereoregular-atactic/isotactic/syndiotactic

synthesis : KS3-GCSE-AS as type of reaction

synthetic polymers : GCSE formation-uses-products from oil : GCSE using plastics-problems : GCSE extra organic man-made polymers : GCSE poly(ethene) : GCSE poly(propene) : GCSE poly(chloroethene) PVC  : GCSE-ADVAN(basic) bonding, structure and properties

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