Doc Brown's Chemistry

Alphabetical Index  C   



1st time user notes





caesium/cesium, Cs, in  Group 1 The Alkali Metals: GCSE-data-properties-chemical reactions-uses : GCSE-reactivity-reactions involving oxygen/water/acids/displacement : ADVANCED detailed notes s-block Gp 1/2 elements/compounds : ADVANCED data-graphs Gps 1/2 : ADVANCED element data :

calamine/Smithsonite ore (zinc carbonate) : GCSE effect of heating/zinc metal extraction :

calamine lotion : GCSE use in sting treatment :

calcium and compounds, Ca, in Group 2 : GCSE-reactivity-reactions involving oxygen/water/acids/displacement  : ADVANCED detailed notes s-block Gp 1/2 elements/compounds : ADVANCED data-graphs Gps 1/2 : ADVANCED data :

calcium carbonate, CaCO3(s),(occurs as limestone rock) : GCSE limestone chemistry-uses-decomposition by heat : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) rate of reaction with acid : GCSE reversible thermal decomposition : GCSE carbonate-acid reaction : KS3-GCSE limestone formationADVANCED detailed Group 2 compound notesADVANCED use in volumetric titrations :

calcium chloride, CaCl2(s) : GCSE-AS ionic bondingGCSE electrolysis of molten salt

calcium hydroxide, slaked lime, Ca(OH)2 : GCSE formation from lime

calcium oxide, lime, quicklime, CaO(s) : GCSE Quicklime manufacture-uses : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) bonding-structure-properties

calculations - chemical : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) USE INDEX - lots of examples and quizzes for reacting masses, formulae, gas volumes, molarity, titrations, electrolysis, %yield, purity, dilution etc.GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) Bond energy calculations : GCSE-AS water of crystallisationADVANCED acid-base titrations : ADVANCED redox titrationsADVANCED equilibrium (need to check the various sub-index in Parts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 : ADVANCED relative atomic mass by mass spectrometry

calculations - half-life/radioactivity : GCSE-AS definition and calculations e.g. carbon-14 archaeological dating/K-Ar rock dating

californium, Cf :

calorimeter : GCSE experimental method/calculation for measuring energy changes : ADVANCED thermodynamics Part 1 thermochemistry - enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion :

cancer : GCSE-AS dangers of radioactivity

Cannizzaro reaction : ADVANCED examples :

carbocation : ADVANCED explained in organic chemistry

carbohydrates - natural molecules : GCSE structure

carbon-14 isotope (14C, radiocarbon) dating : GCSE-GCE Dating by radioactive isotope decay :

carbon, C : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) use in extracting metals from ores e.g. iron : GCSE use in steel making : GCSE position and group in periodic table : GCSE-AS diamond/graphite/fullerenes-bonding-properties : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) burning oil products-hydrocarbon-fossil fuels-incomplete combustion, soot pollution

carbon dioxide, CO2(g)   : Test for : CO2 gas preparation and collectionGCSE Greenhouse effect, causes, effects and what we can do? : GCSE more on CO2/temperature data graphs and discussion points : GCSE-AS covalent molecule-bonding : ADVANCED molecule shape, bond angle, dot & cross electronic diagram :

carbon fibres-graphite: CARBON FIBRES :

carbon monoxide, CO(g) : KS3-GCSE-AS dangers/air pollution from gas fires/motor vehicles-incomplete combustion : GCSE-AS extraction of iron

carbon nanotubes : Nanochemistry - carbon nanotubes : See also Bonding notes :

carbonated water/'carbonic acid' : GCSE formation and use

carbonates/carbonate ion, CO32- : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram : Test for carbonates : KS3-GCSE reaction with acidsGCSE heat-thermal decomposition-limestoneADVANCED carbonates & hydrogen carbonates :

carbonic acid/carbonated water : see above

carboxylic acids (alkanoic acids) (and derivatives) : GCSE extra organic chemistryADVANCED structure and naming of acids and derivatives : ADVANCED aromatic-structure-naming ADVANCED summary of functional group/homologous series structure : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling points of carboxylic acids compared to other organic molecules, dimer and hydrogen bonding : ADVANCED solubility of carboxylic acids (Equilibria section 8.7) :

catalysts/catalysis - rates of reaction : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) notes : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) chemical energy changesGCSE-ADVANCED (basic) uses of Transition MetalsADVANCED theory of heterogeneous/homogeneous/poisoning examples : ADVANCED chemical equilibrium rules and Le Chatelier's Principle :

catalytic converter/mechanisms : KS3-GCSE-AS as type of reaction : KS3-GCSE-AS reducing air pollution from motor vehiclesADVANCED catalytic mechanisms

cathode - negative electrode : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) introduction to electrolysis and links to uses

cations : Ionic Bonding : Qualitative tests for cations : in electrolysis :

CCEA/CEA exam board (NI) : GCSE Science-Chemistry support-help links

cells - biology : GCSE-AS damage from radioactivity

cells/batteries - chemistry : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) simple battery design and explanationGCSE fuel cell : GCSE-AS electrolysis examplesADVANCED the principles of cells-batteries explained (use top 7. sub-index) :

cellulose : GCSE structure

cement : GCSE manufacture

centrifuges/centrifuging : separation technique explained with examples of uses :

ceramics : GCSE use of transition metal oxides as glazing colours

cerium, Ce :

cesium : see caesium above

CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) :  GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) CFC's - ozone destruction  : ADVANCED structure- naming :

chain isomerism : ADVANCED detailed notes-examples of chain, positional, functional group isomerism and tautomerism :  : 

chain reactionGCSE-AS nuclear fissionADVANCED explained for organic mechanismsADVANCED free radical reaction mechanisms - alkanes cracking and chlorination :

chalk - sedimentary rock : GCSE formation

charge - electrical : GCSE-AS sub-atomic particles : GCSE on ions-working out formula

Charles's Law: GCSE-ADVANCED explained - gas calculations :

chemical bonding - covalent (small molecule, giant, polymers), ionic and metals-alloys : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) detailed notes on ionic/covalent/metallic bonding (use sub-indexes)

chemical change/reaction : GCSE-KS3 explained-examples

chemical economics : GCSE comments on factors and examples : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) manufacture of ammonia : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) extraction of metals :

chemical equations : KS3-GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) explained-examples

chemical equilibrium : GCSE introduction and rules : ADVANCED detailed notes pages on molecular, ionic and redox equilibria and calculation :

chemical factory/works: GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) Location considerations, running costs, environmental factors :

chemical formula of ... : KS3-GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) examples explained

chemical reactions/properties of ... : GCSE Group 1 Alkali metals : GCSE Group 7 Halogens : GCSE Transition metals : GCSE Acids and Alkalis : GCSE metals-reactivity series : ADVANCED s-block Groups 1-2 detailed notes

chemical reactions - types of ... KS3-GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) various types of reaction

chemical test for? : KS3-GCSE-ADVANCED test index

chemisorption : ADVANCED heterogeneous catalyst theory-uses

chemistry - KS3 : KS3 science quiz index : KS3 biology Q's : KS3 chemistry Q's : KS3 physics Q'sKS3 integrated science Q's

chiral auxiliaries/auxiliary synthesis : ADVANCED detailed notes-examples

chirality-optical isomerism-R/S stereoisomerism : ADVANCED detailed notes-examples of chiral molecules, R/S isomerism, optical isomerism, enantiomerism : ADVANCED optical isomer Q

chlorate(III) ion, ClO2- (chlorite ion) : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram :

chlorate(V) ion, ClO3- (chlorate ion) : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram :

chlorate(VII) ion, ClO4- (perchlorate ion) : ADVANCED shape-bond angle, dot & cross diagram :

chlorides, Cl- (bromides, fluorides, iodides) : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) general chemistry, properties, uses : GCSE bonding/properties of compounds - ionic or covalentADVANCED -estimation with silver nitrate titration Q's : Test for chloride ion :

chlorination : ADVANCED alkane free radical substitution reaction mechanisms : ADVANCED aromatic electrophilic substitution mechanisms :  : 

chlorine and compounds, Cl, Cl2(g) in Group 7 The Halogens : GCSE-data-properties-chemical reactions-uses : Cl2 gas preparation and collection : GCSE reaction with alkanes : ADVANCED -data : GCSE-AS molecule-bonding : ADVANCED chlorination alkanes : ADVANCED chlorination aromatics : ADVANCED redox reactions with NaOH :

chloroalkanes (haloalkanes, halogenoalkanes, e.g. alkyl halides, RX, X=Cl, Br, I) : GCSE - formation : ADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED tests for : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name QuizTests for halogenoalkanes/haloalkanes/alkyl halides :

chloroalkenesADVANCED structure and naming :

chloroaromatics : ADVANCED structure naming

chloroethane : ADVANCED intermolecular forces and boiling point of organic compounds :

chloromethane, CH3Cl(g)GCSE-AS covalent molecule-bonding

chlorophyll: GCSE Photosynthesis explained

cholesterol : GCSE short note on this steroid

chromatography : GCSE-KS3 paper/thin layer explained-examplesAS-GCSE paper/thin layer analysis-organic chemistryGCSE-AS gas-liquid chromatography - diagram and analysis explained

chromium, Cr : GCSE-properties-uses-Transition Metals : GCSE-position in periodic table : GCSE use in stainless steel : GCSE-AS extraction : GCSE-ADVANCED data : ADVANCED detailed notes 3d-block Transition Metals : ADVANCED Chromium :

chromium(III) compounds : ADVANCED oxidation to Cr(VI) : ADVANCED detailed notes chromium 3d-block Transition Metals :

chromogenic materials : Smart materials - CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS

cis/trans geometrical isomerism : ADVANCED defined and lots of examples described

cis-platin : ADVANCED isomerism/anti-cancer drug

CIE Cambridge International exam board : GCSE/IGCSE Science-Chemistry support-help links

citric acid : GCSE mention and structure

climate change/global warming/Greenhouse effect : GCSE Greenhouse effect, causes, effects and what we can do? : GCSE more on CO2/temperature data graphs and discussion points :

coal - sedimentary rock : KS3-GCSE rock formation-fossil fuelGCSE-fossil fuel notes :

cobalt, Co : GCSE-notes-transition metals : GCSE-position in periodic table : GCSE-ADVANCED data : ADVANCED Co(II) ions-homogeneous catalysis : ADVANCED detailed notes 3d-block Transition Metals : ADVANCED Cobalt :

cobalt(II) compounds : ADVANCED oxidation to Co(III) : ADVANCED detailed notes cobalt 3d-block Transition Metals :

combinatorial chemistry : ADVANCED - definition and examples of combinatorial chemistry :

co-enzymes/cofactors : ADVANCED enzyme function :

coke - impure carbon : GCSE-AS extraction of iron

collision particle theory : KS3-GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) gas pressure theory : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) explaining rates of reaction factorsADVANCED theory

colloidal clay : GCSE in water

colloids : GCSE explained-examples and types

colorimetry/colorimeter: ADVANCED Use in analysis and determining formula of a transition metal ion complex :

colour : ADVANCED Electron configuration & colour theory :

combinational chemistry-autosynthesis : ADVANCED organic synthesis

combining power of elements (valency/valencies) : GCSE-AS covalent/ ionic explained-examples : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) covalent and ionic bonding

combustion-burning : KS3-GCSE-AS as type of reaction (complete/incomplete/slow/fast/explosive/spontaneous)GCSE oil product fuels : GCSE extra organic chemistry

common ion effect : ADVANCED in Part 4 Equilibria Notes :

'common table salt' : see sodium chloride

competitive inhibition/inhibitors : ADVANCED enzyme-structure-function

complete combustion : KS3-GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) burning oil products-hydrocarbon-fossil fuels

complex ion/'complexes' : ADVANCED shapes and bond angles of transition metal complexes

composition by mass, : GCSE-AS definition-% composition examples-Quiz

compounds : GCSE-KS3 explained-examples : KS3 quiz on atoms/elements/compounds/mixtures

compressibility factor (z): ADVANCED ideal & non-ideal real gas behaviour z = PV/nRT equation :

concentrated ... : GCSE sulphuric acid, H2SO4(l) :

concentration : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) calculations notes-examples-quizzes : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) rates of reaction factor : ADVANCED chemical equilibrium rules and Le Chatelier's Principle :

concrete : GCSE manufacture

condensation (physical state change) and boiling=condensation point : KS3-GCSE explainedKS3-GCSE in distillation : GCSE removal of temporary hardness : Group 1 Alkali Metal data : Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metal data : Group 0 Noble Gas data : Group 7 Halogen data : Transition Metal data (Sc-Zn, 3d block)

condensation polymerisation : GCSE-AS as type of reaction : Extra Organic : bonding : 

conduction/conductivity of ... : KS3-GCSE metal properties : GCSE ionic melts/solutions : GCSE-AS theory of heat/electrical conduction of metals

conjugate acid/base : ADVANCED theory of acids and bases (also use sub-index  near top of page) :

conservation of mass/reacting mass calculations : KS3-GCSE basic idea explained : GCSE-AS basic examples-calculations-Quiz

Contact Process for making sulphuric acid : KS3-GCSE-AS as type of reaction : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) full details of process

continental drift - plate tectonics : GCSE Earth Science notes

continuous deposition of rock sediment : GCSE sedimentary rocks

continuous/batch process (chemical industry) : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic idea) explained-examples

cooling/heating curves - state changes : KS3-GCSE graphs explainedGCSE states m/c Quiz

copper, Cu : GCSE-reactivity-reactions involving oxygen/water/acids/displacement : GCSE-properties-uses-Transition Metals : GCSE-AS extraction-electrolysis-purification : ADVANCED data : ADVANCED heterogeneous catalyst : ADVANCED detailed notes 3d-block Transition Metals : ADVANCED notes Copper :

copper(I) ion/compounds : ADVANCED redox theory of disproportionation to Cu(0) + Cu(II) : ADVANCED detailed notes copper 3d-block Transition Metals :

copper(II) ion/compounds : ADVANCED oxidation of iodide : ADVANCED detailed notes copper 3d-block Transition Metals :

copper(II) sulphate (hydrated), CuSO4.5H2O(s) : GCSE reversible reaction - thermal decomposition

core of Earth : GCSE Earth science - geology notes

corrosion of metals : GCSE chemistry of iron rusting and its prevention

corrosive : KS3-GCSE hazard warning sign/symbol

cosmetics : cosmetics as an example of the science of formulation chemistry :

Cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) : The Big Bang Theory of the Universe, the red-shift and microwave background radiation

costs : GCSE manufacturing chemicals : GCSE extracting metals

coulomb : GCSE-AS unit of electric charge - electrolysis calculations

coursework - some useful on-site links : GCSE rates of reaction ideasAS Salters Open Book : ADVANCED kinetics - advanced rates of reactions notes : ADVANCED theory of enzyme structure and function

covalency : GCSE explained-examples : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) detailed notes :

covalent bonding : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) detailed notesADVANCED molecule shapeADVANCED in protein-enzyme structure

cracking - a thermal decomposition process : KS3-GCSE-AS as type of reaction : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) products from in oil industryGCSE-AS demonstration experimentADVANCED free radical/ionic reaction mechanisms : ADVANCED heterogeneous catalyst-uses

critical values of temperature and pressure : ADVANCED non-ideal real gas behaviour & Van der Waals equation :

crude oil : GCSE-ADVANCED (basic) origin and useful products

crust of Earth : GCSE Earth science - geology notes

cryolite : GCSE-AS mineral used in electrolytic extraction of aluminium

crystallisation : GCSE crystallization-explained-examplesGCSE-AS water of crystallisation in salts

curie : unit of radioactivity

curium, Cm :

cyclo - see individual types of compound below ...

cycloalcohols/non-cyclic alcohols : ADVANCED structure and naming

cycloalkanes/non-cyclic alkanes : ADVANCED structure and naming : ADVANCED geometrical isomerism : ADVANCED naming m/c Quiz : ADVANCED type in name Quiz

cycloalkenes/non-cyclic alkenes : ADVANCED structure and naming

cyclohalogenoalkanes (cyclo alkyl halides, and non-cyclo haloalkanes) : ADVANCED structure and naming


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